Where, Why and What? Terms Used to Describe Direction and Surface Term Meaning Ventral Refers to the belly or underside of a body or body part
Dorsal Refers to the back also refers to the cranial surface of the manus (front of paw) and pes (rear of paw) Cranial Front of the body Posterior
Rear of the body Rostral Nose end of the head Cephalic Pertaining to the head Caudal
Toward the tail Medial Toward the midline Lateral Away from the midline Term Meaning
Superior Uppermost, above, or toward the head Inferior Lowermost, below or toward the tail Proximal
Nearest the midline or nearest to the beginning of a structure Distal Farthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of the structure Superficial (also called external)
Means near the surface Deep (also called internal) Away from the surface Palmar The caudal surface of the manus(front paw) including the carpus
Plantar The caudal surface of the pe (rear paw) including the tarsus Planes Imaginary lines that are used descriptively to divide the body into sections Plane Description
Midsagittal (median and Divides the body into midline) equal right and left halves Sagittal (frontal and coronal) Divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts Transverse (horizontal
and/or cross-section 0plan) Divides the body into cranial and caudal parts Planes are imaginary lines that are used descriptively to divide the body into sections. Midsagittal: the plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves . * median * midline Sagittal: the plane that divides the body into
unequal right and left parts Dorsal: the plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts * frontal * coronal Transverse: the plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts * horizontal plan * cross-sectional plan The terms anterior, posterior, superior and inferior can be confusing when
used with quadrupeds. In quadrupeds, ventral is a better term for anterior and dorsal is a better term than posterior Study . . . . -ology: study of physiology: then study of body function pathology: the study of the nature, causes and development of abnormal conditions pathophysiology: the study of changes in function caused by disease etiology: the study of the cause of disease
The Mouth Term Meaning Arcade Describes how teeth are arranged in the mouth Lingual surface
Aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue Maxilla Upper jaw Mandible Lower jaw Palatal surface
Tooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue Lingual surface The tooth surface of the mandible that faces the tongue Term
Meaning Buccal surface (vestibular surface) Aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek Occlusal surface The aspects of the teeth that meet where you chew
Labial surface The tooth surface facing the lips Contact surface The aspects of the tooth that touch other teeth Mesial contact
Contact surface is the one closest to the midline of the dental arcade or arch Distal contact The surface furthest from the midline of the dental arcade The dental arcade is the term used to describe how teeth are arranged in the
mouth. Teeth Surfaces The lingual surface is the aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue. The palatal surface is the tooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue and the lingual surface is the tooth surface of the mandible surface that faces the tongue. The buccal surface is the aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek (Bucca means cheek). * sometimes called the vestibular surface (Vestibule means cavity or entrance)
The occlusal surfaces are the aspects of the teeth that meet when you chew. Hint: think of the teeth occluding, or stopping, things from passing between them when you clench the them. The labial surface is the tooth surface facing the lips. (labia means lip) Contact surfaces are divided into * mesial : the one closest to the midline of the dental
arcade * distal: furthest from the midline of the dental arcade HOLES = CAVITIES A body cavity is a hole or hollow space in the body that contains and protects organs. The cranial (crani = skull) cavity is the hollow space that contains the brain and skull. The spinal cavity is the hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column. The thoracic cavity (thorac = chest) is the hollow space that contains the heart and lungs with the ribs
between the neck and diaphragm. The abdominal cavity is the hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion located between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity. The peritoneal cavity is the hollow space within the abdominal cavity between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum. The pelvic cavity is the hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory systems organs bounded by the pelvic bones. TERMS YOU NEED TO KNOW . . .
REGIONS Abdomen the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis containing the abdominal cavity. Thorax is the chest region located between the neck and the diaphragm. Groin the lower region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh (also known as inguinal area) MEMBRANES . . . Membranes are thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity or divide a space or an organ. Peritoneum the membrane lining the walls of the
abdominal and pelvic cavities and covers some of the organs in this area. (the peritoneum maybe further divided in reference to its location) * parietal (side) peritoneum outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities * visceral (organ) peritoneum the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs.
Peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum ABDOMEN . . . Umbilicus (navel) the pit in the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus. Mesentery the layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine in the abdominal cavity. Retroperitoneal superficial to the peritoneum. LYING AROUND . . .
Recumbent lying down Dorsal recumbency lying on the back also known as supine Ventral recumbency (sternal recumbency) lying on the belly also known as pron Left lateral recumbency lying on the left side Right lateral recumbency lying on the right side Dorsal or supine Sternal or ventral
Right lateral Left lateral MOVING ALONG . . . Adduction movement toward the midline Abduction movement away from the midline Flexion closure of a joint angle or reduction of the angle. Extension straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between two bones * hyperflexion and hyperextension occur when the
joint is flexed or extended too far. CELLS . . . Cyte = cell Ology = study of * cytology = involves studying cell origin, structure, function and pathology Prot = first Plasm = formative material of cells * protoplasm = the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
GENES . . . Genetic term used to denote something that pertains to genes or heredity. Genetic Disorder any inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes Congenital denotes something that is present at birth Anomaly deviation from what is regarded as normal (used instead of defect) Tissue . . . Hist/o = tissue Ology = study of
* histology = the study of structure, composition and function of tissue Tissue a group of specialized cells that are similar in structure and function Four types of tissue: 1. epithelial (epithelium) covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells a. Endothelium lining of the internal organs
b. Mesothelium covering that forms the lining of serous membranes such as the peritoneum 2. Connective - adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together Examples: bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments a. Adipose fat (connective) 3. Muscle contains cell material with the
specialized ability to contract and relax a. Skeletal b. Smooth c. cardiac 4. Nervous - contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses -plasia = formation, development, growth and cell numbers
-Trophy = formation, development, and increase in size of tissue and cells Anaplasia a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other Aplasia lack of development of an organ or tissue or a cell Dysplasia abnormal growth or development of an organ or a tissue or a cell. Hyperplasia abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or a tissue or a cell
Hypoplasia incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or a tissue or a cell. Neoplasm any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive * usually form a distinct mass of tissue called a tumor * benign not cancerous or not recurring * malignant tending to spread and be life threatening (cancerous) -oma = tumor or neoplasm
Atrophy decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell Dystrophy defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell Hypertrophy increase in the size of an organ or tissue or cell Reminder: a without dys bad hypo less than normal hyper more than normal ana without neo new
5. Glands: groups of specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body Aden/o = gland Exocrine gland: groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances into ducts that lead out of the body or to another organ. (sweat glands, sebaceous glands) Endocrine gland: groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body. They are ductless (thyroid glands, pituitary
and the portion of the pancreas that secretes insulin. 6. Organ: part of the body that performs a special function or functions. NUMBERS Medical terms can be further modified by the use of prefixes to assign number value, numerical order, or proportions.
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