he History of England, the Englis Language and its Peoples Who are the English? Whence came they? Brit Lit, 2016-2017 Ketterer The Roman Invasion of a Savage Isle Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice, in 55 BC and again in 54 BC. But he also left again each time soon after.
Britain did not become part of the Roman Empire as a result of Julius Caesar's invasions. Nor did the Romans follow up on his short-lived conquests. At least not for another century. Roman Britain Scotland was never conquered by the Romans. All in all, the Romans launched 3 major campaigns into modern day Scotland: -1st Campaign led by Roman's
Governor of Britain Agricola (77-84) -2nd Campaign under Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161) -3rd Campaign under Septimius Severus (193-211) What's the Limes? The plural is limites. Originally, a limes was a path, passage, road, way, or track. Later it stood for boundary, border, or frontier. The best documented limites in Great Britain
are Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall. s Hadrians Wall --122-128 The Romans build Hadrian's Wall, a permanent northern frontier of Roman Britain that is 73 miles or 118 kilometers long, 15 feet high, and built of stone. It runs between the Rivers Tyne in the east and Solway Firth in the west. Building of the wall takes 6 years. View of Hadrians Wall Romes Final Frontier 142 M.E. Under Antoninus Pius, the Romans push
further north once again, abandoning Hadrian's Wall. They return to Perthshire and rebuild some of their former forts, Ardoch for example. They also build a new wall some 100 miles north of Hadrian's Wall, the Antonine Wall. In charge is Quintus Lollius Urbicus. The wall is made out of turf and timber and runs 37 miles or 59 kilometers long. It stretches coast-to-coast and connects today's Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth in the east with Old Kilpatrick on the Firth of Clyde in the west. This wall marks the farthest extent of Roman occupation in ancient Britain, and is therefore also
The Glory That Was Rome End of the Roman Era in Britain 395 The Roman Empire splits permanently into East and West. 410 Emperor Honorius receives a request for military aid from Britannia. His answer is a negative. This reply is also known as the Honorian Rescript. The exact role that this decree plays in the closing stages of Roman Britain is debated. In any event, by the year 411 Rome was unable to enforce its control in Britain. On August 24, 410, the Visigoths, led by Alaric,
enter Rome. They will loot the city for three days. The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from "Englaland" [sic] and their language was called "Englisc" - from which
the words "England" and "English" are derived. Old English (450-1100 AD) The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100. [N.B., Beowulf was written in Old English, although heavily influenced by Scandinavian languages and narrative
traditions.] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zs--wqVdBwo; Beowulf: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH-_GwoO4xI Middle English (1100-1500) In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet
Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today. [Chaucer: General Prologue of the Canterbury Tales, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QE0MtENfOMU Modern English -- Early Modern English (1500-1800) Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in
print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. Shakespeare in OP: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPlpphT7n9s Late Modern English (1800Present) The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English
language adopted foreign words from many countries. Varieties of English From around 1600, the English colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words "froze" when they reached America. In some ways, American English is more like the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. Some expressions that the British call "Americanisms" are in fact original British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost for a time in Britain (for example trash for rubbish, loanas a verb instead of lend, and fall for autumn; another example, frame-up, was re-imported into Britain through Hollywood gangster movies). Spanish also had an influence on American English (and subsequently British English), with words like canyon, ranch, stampede and vigilante being examples of Spanish words that entered English through the
settlement of the American West. French words (through Louisiana) and West African words (through the slave trade) also influenced American English (and so, to an extent, British English). Today, American English is particularly influential, due to the USA's dominance of cinema, television, popular music, trade and technology (including the Internet). But there are many other varieties of English around the world, including for example Australian English, New Zealand English, Canadian English, South African English, Indian English and Caribbean English. The Germanic Branch of the IndoEuropean Family of Languages Historic languages of the British Isles: http A brief chronology of English
55 BC AD 43 Roman invasion of Britain Local by Julius Caesar inhabitants speak Roman invasion and occupation. Beginning of Celtish Roman rule of Britain 436
Roman withdrawal from Britain complete 449 Settlement of Britain by Germanic invaders begins 450-480 Earliest known Old English Old English begins to take inscriptions shape.
1066 c1150 1348 William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invades and conquers England Earliest surviving manuscripts in Middle English
English replaces Latin as the language of instruction in most schools French enters Old English The Great Vowel Shift Middle English 1362
English replaces French as the language of law. English is used in Parliament for the first time c1388 Chaucer starts writing The Canterbury Tales
c1400 The Great Vowel Shift begins 1476 William Caxton Early establishes the first Modern English printing English press
1564 Shakespeare is born 1604 Table Alphabeticall, the first English dictionary, is published 1607 The first permanent English settlement in the New World
(Jamestown) is established 1616 Shakespeare dies, on the same day as Miguel de Cervantes 1623 Shakespeare's First Folio is published (by his admirer, Ben Jonson) 1702
The first daily English-language newspaper, The Daily Courant, is published in London 1755 Samuel Johnson publishes his English dictionary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3r9bOkYW9s
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