Work Motivation - Western Oregon University

Work Motivation - Western Oregon University

Work Motivation Work Motivation Definition Internal State that directs individuals to certain goals and objectives Not directly observable Inferred from behavior variability in behavior is not result of

differences in ability situational (environmental) factors Work Motivation Theories of Work Motivation Internal (Content) Theories Identify factors within an individual that energize, direct, sustain, and stop behavior.

External (Process) Theories Describe how personal and situational (environmental) factors interact and influence each other to produce certain kinds of behavior MASLOWS MASLOWSHIERARCHY HIERARCHYOF OFNEEDS NEEDS

ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM SOCIAL SAFETY PHYSICAL McClellands Learned Needs Need for Achievement a need to accomplish goals, excel, and strive continually to do things better. Need for Affiliation

desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships affiliative interest affiliative assurance Need for Power the need to influence and lead others and be in control of ones environment socialized power personalized power Equity Theory WeLarry

are motivated by perceived inequity (unfairness) Moe Curly Perceived inequity creates a state of unpleasant z z z tension that we are motivated to reduce How do we perceive inequity (unfairness)? According to Adams, inequity is perceived when our perception of the ratio of our Inputs to Outputs is different from that of a comparison other . amount of AnInputs example:

work, KSAs, experience Outputs pay, promotions, perqs Reducing Inequity Change your inputs Change your outputs Change your comparison other Alter your perceptions Expectancy Theory Valence - attractiveness of the outcomes to employees

Instrumentality - strength of belief that Job outcomes pay,ofpromotions) performance results in outcome Expectancy - (e.g., strength belief that effort attainment will result in successful performance

Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964) Five Components Job outcomes (e.g., pay, promotions) Valence - attractiveness of the outcomes to employees Instrumentality - strength of belief that performance results in outcome attainment Expectancy - strength of belief that effort will result in successful performance Force - amount of pressure within the person to be motivated

Goal Setting Theory Function of Goals basis of motivation direct behavior For goals to be effective individuals must be aware of goals must accept the goals

Factors that influence effectiveness of goal setting goals must be specific goals should be difficult but attainable Herzbergs Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factors salary company policy physical facilities administration working conditions

co-worker relations Motivators challenge autonomy advancement recognition

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