Workshop: Bishop's High School Tobago Developing an ...

Workshop: Bishop's High School Tobago Developing an ...


PAPER AND PENCIL ASSESSMENTS (4 WEEKS) Item Types Item Development Item Analysis-Approaches & Software Ensuring quality in test and item development Validity & Reliability Conceptions Validation of test and items Summarizing Test Scores Reporting Test Scores Standards-based Assessment1-Setting standards in

accountability tests and public examinations PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS (4 WEEKS) Definitions and characteristics Performance, Authenticity, Alternative Formative Assessment Classroom Assessment, Continuous Assessment, & School-Based Assessment-theory & practice Performance Assessment Modes Standards-based Assessment 2-Standards and

Benchmarks as Guides and Competency-based assessment (2014 only) Rubric and Rubric Development Quality in Performance Assessment Week Week 1 Date 24.01.14 DAY FRIDAY







Week 10 07.03.14 FRIDAY ISSUES-FORMATIVE ASESSMENT Week 11 14.03.14


28.03.14 FRIDAY EXAMINATION PREPARATION Books How to do the assignments? Assignment 1 ASSIGNMENT 1 (10 marks) FRIDAY 7TH

FEBRUARY (1000 WORDS) Select an assessment/ assessment scheme scheme/ product/system in your area or discipline Develop a framework and criteria for your critique Critique the (1) assessment purpose and scheme, (2) the items or tasks, (3) the implementation and administration, and (4) the reporting and use of data using key principles derived from classes 1-3. Assignment 2 ASSIGNMENT 2 (20 marks)- FRIDAY 3RD MARCH (10-12 PAGES) Select a single topic and/or big idea Develop a set of specifications to guide the

development of a parallel set of selected response (20) constructed response items (1), and performance task (1) Administer the test/assessment Score the test/assessment Report on the test/assessment Assignment 3 ASSIGNMENT 2- (10 marks) FRIDAY 21ST MARCH CHOOSE AN ASSESSMENT ISSUE IN YOUR AREA-SBA, CVQ, CAC, NT etc. In a 15 minute oral presentation, IDENTIFY

THE MAJOR CHALLENGES AND MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS that are based on current assessment theory ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT (3 WEEKS) High stakes and washback from public examinations and accountability tests The quality of Teacher Judgment in SBA and CAC-Fostering Assessment Literacy The student in role assessment- Formative Assessment role in fostering autonomy Multiple Purposes of Assessments in Assessment Systems-Certification,

Accountability, & Learning CURRENT ASSESSMENT TRENDS Focus on assessment systems Increasing significance of formative assessment and assessment as learning Increased role for performance and authentic assessments Qualitative-evaluative scales-Rubrics Multi-use assessments (Continuous & School Based Assessments) Computer based and Computer Adaptive Testing Evidence centered design for assessments

Changes in classroom assessment & teaching-learning DEFINITIONS Comparing Measurement with Student Assessment MEASUREMENT STUDENT ASSESSMENT the process by which attributes or dimensions

of some element is determined and the target qualities or behaviours are transformed into categories or numbers the process of observing learning; describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and interpreting information about a student's learning.

How is assessment different to evaluation and measurement? What is Educational Assessment? The Latin root assidere means to sit beside (as someone assisting a judge to gather and document evidence in a court of law). What is educational assessment? Educational assessment is about evidence and

inference. In all cases it involves collecting evidence of student learning. That evidence may be used to make a judgment for different purposes. Assessment may be formal or informal and include processes such as observing learning; describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and interpreting information on student learning. What is educational assessment? Since the evidence may be used for different purposes assessment has different forms.

It is sometimes considered as an episode in the learning process; part of reflection and autobiographical understanding of progress or data may be used to determine placement, promotion, graduation, or retention. Defining Assessment from an Evidence Based Design Perspective Robert J. Mislevy, Linda S. Steinberg, & Russell G. Almond TTASCD A working definition of assessment An assessment is a machine for reasoning about what students know,

can do, or have accomplished, based on a handful of things they say, do, or make in particular settings. A working definition of assessment An assessment is more than this, of course. All assessments are embedded in a cultural setting and address social purposes both stated and implicit. A working definition of assessment Assessments communicate values, standards, and expectations. Some

assessments are opportunities to extend learning. Others dont even look like assessments as we usually think of them; they look like conversations between a student and a teacher or between two students. Assessments communicate values, standards, and expectations A handful of things

students say, do, or make in particular settings Reasoning about what students know, can do, or have accomplished embedded in a cultural setting and address social purposes both stated and implicit

Mislevy, R. J., Steinberg, L. S., & Almond, R. G. (2003). On the structure of educational assessments. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 1, 367. An assessment is a machine for reasoning about what students know, can do, or have accomplished, based on a handful of things they say, do, or make in particular settings. An assessment is more than this, of course. All assessments are embedded in a cultural setting, and address social purposes both stated and implicit. Assessments communicate values, standards, and expectations. Some assessments are opportunities to extend learning. Others dont even look like assessments as we usually think of them; they look like conversations between a student and a teacher, or one student with another. What all assessments share, though, is reasoning that relates the particular

things students say or do, to what they know or can do as more broadly conceived; that is, in terms that have meanings beyond the specifics of the immediate observations. The argument behind such reasoning is grounded in beliefs about the nature of knowledge in the domain in question, how we recognize it when we see it, and situations in which evidence about that knowledge might be manifest. A mature an expanded view of student assessment Assessment is more than making judgements based on test scores. Information is carried or assumed about context and history of the test taker with the situation.

Several inferences are made and assumptions that begin with the test design process- Is the content/skill being measured truly important? To whom? Is the sample of items/tasks truly representative of the domain? Does the task or item really elicit the behaviour inferred? Is the evidence sufficient for making the final judgement? What we learn from the definition 1) Assessments are always a sample of the domain universe 2) Assessments reflect what is valued by the culture 3) We must extrapolate to the real domain universe

4) The meanings we attach to the performance relate to this extrapolation 5) Assessments are therefore fallible 6) We can make assessments better by focusing upon evidence-centred design A focus on assessment systems An assessment system is a group of policies, structures, practices, and tools for generating and using information on student learning and achievement. Marguerite Clarke, World Bank, 2012

AN EMERGING FOCUS ON ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS Effective assessment systems are those that provide information of sufficient quality and quantity to meet stakeholder information and decision-making needs in support of improved education quality and student learning outcomes. Marguerite Clarke, World Bank, 2012 A VARIETY OF ASSESSMENTS TYPES





CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT To promote & measure To promote Student Learning Student Learning NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS ToTomeasure quality measureinstitutional institutional&&system System quality PUBLIC PUBLICEXAMINATIONS

EXAMINATIONS ToTo select && certify select certify INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS To ASSESSMENTS measure and compare system To measure and compare system quality quality across nations

Definitions Public examinations are high-stakes assessments used for selection, certification, or qualification. (traditionally at 11+, 16+, & 18+). Classroom assessment includes all the assessment and measurement strategies (formative & Summative (Assessment of, as and for learning) used by the teacher within the classroom. National assessments are large scale assessments used for monitoring a nation al system or parts of that system. International assessments are large scale assessments used for comparing performance across several nation

systems or within a region. Public Examinations These are large scale assessments (operating externally of the school but sometimes including school based components) and designed mainly to select or certify students (11+, CSEC, & CAPE)

Large Scale Assessment These are assessments that are standardized and administered by the administrative centre and used for accountability or certification (includes public examinations and national assessments of educational achievement). This type of assessment may be compared with classroom assessments, and different rules may apply to some technical issues like validity and usability. National assessments of educational achievement

These are assessments designed for monitoring achievement standards in the entire system or parts of the system. Other terms are learning assessments, National tests or national assessments of educational achievements [preferred] (Example-NCSE) International Assessments These are standardized measures administered across a number of nations designed to

provide comparative data and benchmarks across different countries and education systems Example Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)-15+) The Architecture of Caribbean Assessment System PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS

Classroom Assessment 1864- Cambridge O Levels Greater emphasis on multimodal assessment and critical thinking 1961- Common Entrance Examination 1979- CXC O Levels 1985- Writing component introduced into 11+

Literacy focus and CRs used 2003- CEE to SEA (Components reduced) 2004- CAPE implemented nationally Tensions between international and national examination bodies Public Examinations Timeline in Trinidad and Tobago Some Common Issues in Public Examination Systems

Fairness/Bias/Construct-Irrelevant Variance/ Validity Consequences/Impact Portability of Qualifications/ Globalization Standards/Grades/Marking/Moderation Legitimacy/ Transparency Equivalence/Comparability Reliability/Raters/Rating Overload/Timing/Emphasis Academic Cheating Roles

On classroom assessment and roles Assessment in the classroom may be formative (used to promote learning) diagnostic (used to remediate) summative (used to measure student learning). Definitions Formative Assessment is A process in which data is collected on the

degree to which students know or are able to do a given learning task, and which identifies the part of the task that the student does not know or is unable to do. Feedback as a part of the process is used to suggest future steps for teaching and learning. Definitions Summative Assessment Is the process of making a judgment of student learning at the conclusion of a unit or units of instruction, or an activity

or plan to determine student skills and knowledge, or the effectiveness of a plan, or an activity. TTASCD On classroom assessment The critical distinction between assessment for and of learning is the basis of much recent theory and research, with the emergence of assessment for learning (also called embedded assessment and assessment

to promote learning) as the key lynch pin in reforming teaching, learning and assessment. Formats Assessment formats There are three assessment formats: Assessment Format Examples Selected Response MCQs Constructed Response

SAQs, Essays Performance Assessments Portfolios, Projects Definitions SELECTED RESPONSE ITEM/TASK- An exercise for which examinees must choose a response from an enumerated set (e.g. multiple choice or matching) rather than create their own responses or products (as in performance assessment). CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE ITEM/TASK- An exercise for which examinees must create their own

responses or products (performance assessment) rather than choose a response from an enumerated set (multiple choice). Sample Assessment ModesSelected Response Sample Assessment ModesConstructed Response Why are different keywords used in the essay prompts? Classification of Common Key Words Used in Prompts Define Name

State List Enumerate Discuss Apply Organize Interpret Examine Contrast Differentiate Appraise Predict Suggest

Develop Definitions A performance assessment is a task in which the student's active generation of a response is observable either directly or indirectly via a permanent product. The task might be authentic in the sense that the nature and context in which the assessment occurs is relevant and represents "real world" problems or issues.

Sample Assessment ModesPerformance Assessments

Design a Tent The aim of this assessment is to: estimate dimensions of a person; visualize and sketch a net for a tent, showing all the measurements. Your task is to design a tent like the one in the picture. Your design must satisfy these conditions: It must be big enough for two adults to sleep in (with their baggage). It must be big enough for someone to move around in while kneeling down.

The bottom of the tent will be made from a thick rectangle of plastic. The sloping sides and the two ends will be made from a single, large sheet of canvas. (It should be possible to cut the canvas so that the two ends do not need sewing onto the sloping sides. It should be possible to zip up the ends at night.) Two vertical tent poles will hold the whole tent up. 1. Estimate the relevant dimensions of a typical adult and write these down. 2. Estimate the dimensions you will need for the rectangular plastic base. Estimate the length of the vertical tent poles you will need. Explain how you get these measurements. 3. Draw a sketch to show how you will cut the canvas from a single piece. Show all the measurements clearly. Calculate any lengths or angles you don't know. Explain how you figured out these lengths and angles.

What is the assessment cycle? The Assessment Cycle Design Development Administration Scoring Test score use & interpretation TEST DEVELOPMENT Processes

Overall Plan Content Definition

Test Specifications Item Development Test Design & Assembly Test Production Test Administration Scoring Test Responses Standard Setting Score Reporting Item Banking Writing Technical Report Assessment Systems & Schemes

TTASCD Some Basic Assessment Principles Assessment must be aligned to and integrated with the curriculum and with the teaching-learning philosophy. Assessment should be multi-modal. We should strive towards a comprehensive balanced assessment system, with appropriate use of assessment of, for, and as learning. Assessment must be high inference and demanding. The scoring of assessments must be rigorous,

standardized, and defensible. More Assessment Principles Assessment systems must be managed effectively, with quality assurance mechanisms in place. We should avoid assessment overload. Attention must be paid to the timing and frequency of assessments. Professional development should include a focus on assessment literacy for teachers. Heads should demonstrate leadership in the area of assessment.

Assessment must be aligned Assessment is neither an add-on or an independent component, but should be integrated with other components. If the assessment system is not aligned with the other major components, it can create a hidden curriculum or washback. Assessment must be aligned If the assessment system is not aligned with the other major components, it can create a hidden curriculum.

TeachingCurriculum Learning Assessment On alignment Systems which overemphasize and mimic high stakes assessments in the classroom are likely to be misaligned. The focus on public examinations has impacted on the use of classroom assessment, standardized diagnostic tests, and national learning assessments.

Aspects of alignment Content of curriculum (Curriculum Coverage) Use both MCs and CRs to cover curriculum along with Table of Specifications Level of objectives-Higher order thinking Explicitly construct questions that test application and higher order skills Philosophy of teaching and learningConstructivism, activity oriented

Include open-ended performance assessments From System Principles to Departmental Plan Philosophy & Policy Statements Structures & Leadership Training (Professional Development) Emphases Annual Assessment Cycle From plan to whole school policy A whole school policy on assessment &

reporting is an agreed approach to assessment practice and reporting that reflects high quality standards. Collaboratively developed from the plans of each department Multipurpose Assessments Tensions in SBA SBA Activity has both summative and formative functions. In formative, we are trying to help the student learn by providing feedback.

In summative, we are assigning them a grade or a mark as a judgment of performance The teacher must reconcile his role as assessor and judge Reconciling the Tensions Assessments of, as, and for learning Assessment FOR learning are formative & diagnostic assessments. Assessment FOR learning is the use of a task or an activity for determining student progress during a unit or block of instruction. Teachers are can adjust classroom instruction based upon the needs of the students and students are provided with valuable feedback on

their own learning. Assessment OF learning is the use of a task or an activity to measure, record and report on a student's level of achievement in regards to specific learning expectations. These are often known as summative assessments. Assessment AS learning is the use of a task or an activity to allow students the opportunity to use assessment to further their own learning. Self and peer assessments allow students to reflect on their own learning and identify areas of strength and need. These tasks offer students the chance to set their own personal goals and advocate for their own learning. Assessment of LearningIs that what we are doing?

Assessment for Learning and formative assessment are phrases that are widely used in educational discourse in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and Europe. A number of definitions, some originally generated by members of this Conference, are often referred to. However, the ways in which the words are interpreted and made manifest in educational policy and practice often reveal misunderstanding of the principles, and distortion of the practices, that the original ideals sought to promote. Some of these misunderstandings and challenges derive from residual ambiguity in the definitions. Position Paper on Assessment for Learning from the Third International Conference on Assessment for Learning Dunedin,

New Zealand, March 2009 The participants pictured in this photograph taken on the last day of the conference are (left to right from back to front):Sandie Aitkin, New Zealand; Mary James, England; Mien Seger, Netherlands; Lorna Earl,Canada; Susan Brookhart, United States; Menucha Birenbaum, Israel; Carolyn Hutchison,Scotland; Ruth Sutton,

England; Claire Wyatt-Smith, Australia; Alison Gilmore, NewZealand; Lester Flockhart, New Zealand; Mary Chamberlain, New Zealand; Filip Dochy, Belgium/Netherlands; Jim Popham, United States; Royce Sadler, Australia; Frank Philips,United States; Dany Laveault, Canada; Geoff Cainen, Canada; Richard Daugherty, Wales;Val Klenowski,; Australia; Ann Longston, Canada; Jeffrey Smith, New Zealand; PeterJohnston, United States; Terry Crooks, New Zealand; Anne Davies,

Canada; Gordon Stobart,England; Ken OConnor, Canada; Rick Stiggins, United States; Kari Smith, Norway. Teammembers not in photograph: Linda Allal, Switzerland; Linda Darling Hammond, UnitedStates; John Hattie, New Zealand; Juliette Mendelovits, Australia; Lisa Smith, New Zealand Box 3: Four working definitions of formative assessment endorsed by the 2009 position paper on assessment for learning. 1. Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting

evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there. Assessment Reform Group (2002) 2. Practice in a classroom is formative to the extent that evidence about student achievement is elicited, interpreted, and used by teachers, learners, or their peers, to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions they would have taken in the absence of the evidence that was elicited. Black & Wiliam (2009). 3. Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students achievement of intended instructional outcomes. McManus (2008).

4. Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics. Popham (2008).

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