World Rice Production: - Cornell University

World Rice Production: - Cornell University

INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY IN RICE PRODUCTION WITH THE RICECHECK SYSTEM Nguu Van Nguyen Executive Secretary, International Rice Commission Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations International Year of Rice 2004 Importance of Rice and Rice systems Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population Rice systems provide incomes and employment to millions of households Rice systems are important for enhancing nutrition and sustainable development

International Year of Rice 2004 620,000,000 600,000,000 580,000,000 Production(tons) RECENT EVOLUTION IN GLOBAL RICE PRODUCTION 560,000,000 540,000,000 520,000,000 500,000,000 480,000,000 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 International Year of Rice 2004

Issues of Rice-based Systems Diminishing land and water resources Increased pressures of pest and diseases Declining soil fertility Poverty in rice producing population Need efforts to enhance the productivity and efficiency in rice production International Year of Rice 2004 RiceCheck system for Increasing Productivity and Efficiency Outline of Presentation Yield Gap in Irrigated Rice Production Technologies for Managing Rice Crops and Systems for their Dissemination FAO Programme on Development and Dissemination of RiceCheck System

Conclusions International Year of Rice 2004 THE YIELD GAP IN IRRIGATED RICE PRODUCTION Yield Potential in Rice Yield potential of traditional Indica varieties = 5 t/ha Japonica x Indica breeding in 1950s Yield potential of High-yielding Indica varieties = 10 t/ha in IR8 Yield potential of High-yielding Japonica varieties = 15 t/ha in YRL Yield potential of hybrid varieties = 18 t/ha in II-32A/Ming86 hybrid International Year of Rice 2004 THE YIELD GAP IN IRRIGATED RICE

PRODUCTION Major Observations of the Expert Consultation in 2000 There is still a large yield gap in irrigated rice production today The closing of this yield gap could increase substantially rice production without further investment in land and water development International Year of Rice 2004 SUB-TROPICAL CLIMATE TROPICAL CLIMATE Hybrid 12 t/ha HY 10 t/ha Hybri d

15 t/ha HY 14 t/ha Best farme r 9-10 t/ha Best farmer 7-8 t/ha Avg farm er 4-5 t/ ha Avg farm er

6-7 t/ ha Fig. 1 Graphical expression of yield gaps in irrigated rice production under tropical (left) and temperate (right) climate areas International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION The Asian packages of production technologies in 1970s and early 1980s The integrated pest management (IPM) system in mid-1980s and associated systems The System of Rice Intensification in Madagascar in early 1980s The Marbrouk-4 System in Egypt in 1985 The P-7 package in Burkina Faso in 1992-93 The WARDA Rice-Integrated Crop Management System in 1995, and The RiceCheck system in Australia in 1986 International Year of Rice 2004

THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION BOX 1: Package of Production Technologies for Transplanted Rice in the Philippines in the 1970s Cardenas et.al, 1980) Application of Basal Fertilizer: Broadcast approximately 3/4 of the nitrogen fertilizer recommended in the form of urea 45% N uniformly in the field; harrow the field to puddle thoroughly in preparation for transplanting. Transplanting: Use 18-day-old seedlings and soak the roots in 12% concentration of carbofuran solution for 12 to 24 hours before transplanting; transplant 2-3 seedlings/hill at 20 cm x 20 cm spacing in straight rows. 1-2 DAT: Apply carbofuran granules at 0.5 kg a.i./ha or diazinon at 1.0 kg a.i./ha 4-5 DAT: Apply 0.8 kg a.i./ha 2.4 D IPE G 3.2% if 2-3 cm depth of water is present in the paddy 6-8 DAT: If field is flooded and 2,4 D IPE G 3.2% cannot be applied at 4-5 DAT, apply butachlor or benthiocarb at rate of 1.5 kg a.i./ha 15-20 DAT: Spray 2,4 D IPE EC 48% or MCPA liquid herbicide at 0.8 kg a.i./ha if granular herbicide cannot be applied; handweeding of field if necessary to remove weeds that escaped herbicide treatment. 20 DAT: Broadcast carbofuran granules at 0.5 kg a.i./ha or 1.0 kg a.i./ha diazinon if there is standing water in the paddy or spray insecticides to control stemborers and green leafhoppers. 20-25 DAT: Broadcast 100 kgs ammonium sulfate 21% N as topdressing at panicle initiation. 20-45 DAT: If there is 10% or more deadheart, apply 0.5 kg a.i./ha of carbufuran. 45 DAT: If there is 10% or more deadheart, apply 1.0 kg a.i./ha of carbufuran. 50-55 DAT: At milk stage, spray insecticides to control rice bugs if there are more than 5 insect/m 2 . 85-90 DAT: Harvest the crop. International Year of Rice 2004

THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION Results of Application Yield increase: Growth rate of Asian rice yield 1970s: 1.88% per year 1980s: 2.86% per year Negative effects: Pollution due to applied pesticides New insect pests (e.g., brown planthopper type 3) and insect pest pressure Decrease in soil fertility, especially minor elements, e.g. zinc International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION IPM system

Developed and disseminated in 1986 Teaches farmers to observe the following in their development of strategies for insect pest management the insect population the condition of the crop and the damage caused by the insects the natural enemies of the insects Started in Indonesia and widely adopted in Asia International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION Results of IPM application Quantity of pesticides applied in rice production was

greatly reduced, especially in Indonesia Less pesticide pollution, and more growth of agricultural biodiversity Promotion of the development of INM systems Initially developed for insect pest management, but has expanded to cover diseases, weed and community pests at present Cannot sustain yield growth International Year of Rice 2004 5,000 Y ie ld ( k g /h a ) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000

IPM 500 0 Figure 2. Indonesian rice yield, 1980-2002 (FAOSTAT) International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION SRI system Developed and disseminated in Madagascar in 1986 Promote the application of the following practices: Young seedlings (<10 days old)

Wide spacing (25 x 25 cm or wider, up to 50cm x 50cm) Intermittent irrigation field should not be kept flooded Application of organic fertilizer as much as possible Intensive hand/mechanical weed control Recently promoted by a number of scientists and non-governmental organizations Recently evaluated by IRRI and IWMI International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION SRI system In Madagascar: Limited adoption without significant effect on yield Recently reported by its proponents: SRI produced high upland yield: 7 t/ha under rainfed condition in Philippines, up to 12-21 t/ha under irrigated conditions Evaluation by IRRI: SRI and Conventional Management system

produced equal yields Major point of scientific contention: Yields reported for SRI, some even with traditional varieties, are higher than the predicted yield potential of HYV (10 t/ha for Indica, 15/ha for Japonica) and hybrid varieties (18 t/ha) International Year of Rice 2004 Y ie ld ( k g /h a ) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 SRI

Figure 3. Madagascar rice yield, 1980-2002 (FAOSTAT) International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION 10,000 Markbouk- 4 System 9,000 8,000 Developed and disseminated in Egypt in 1985 Markbouk-4 = 4 t/fedan or 9 t/ha Has 10 crop management areas from variety to harvest Yield (t/ha)

7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 80 19 82 19 84 19 International Year of Rice 2004 86 19 88

19 90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 19 00 20 02 20 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION

P-7 Package Developed and tested in Burkina Faso in 1992-93 P-7 = 7 t/ha for irrigated rice Has 7 crop management areas from variety selection to harvest Disseminated by Special Programme for Food Security in Burkina Faso and Senegal since 1994 Increase yield of farmers-co-operators from 4-5 t/ha to 6-7 t/ha International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION WARDA Rice-ICM

Developed in 1995 and tested Senegal and Mauritania in 1998-99 Similar to P-7, but For each crop management area a number of alternative technologies are recommended International Year of Rice 2004 Table 2 Yield and net benefit of irrigated rice production in Mauritania and Senegal under traditional farmer practices (TF) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) Parameter Mauritania Senegal Number of site 4 1 Number of farmers

17 10 Yield Net revenue System Unit TF t/ha 3.9 3.8 ICM t/ha

5.7 5.5 ICM - TF t/ha 1.8 1.7 TF Euro 284 215 ICM Euro 525

399 ICM - TF Euro 241 184 International Year of Rice 2004 THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANAGING RICE CROPS AND THE SYSTEMS FOR THEIR DISSEMINATION Australian RiceCheck Developed and disseminated in 1996 Has 7 crop management areas, from field layout to harvest For each crop management area, RiceCheck provides:

Reason why recommendations should be followed Recommended actions or management practices Expected outputs from correct application of the recommended action Principles of IPM and INM were included in RiceCheck for respective crop management areas International Year of Rice 2004 Box 2. Guidelines for Crop Establishment and Crop Nutrition in the Australian RiceCheck (Lacy et. al., 1993) CROP ESTABLISHMENT Reason: Adequate plant population is the first step required to increase yield. Recommended Actions: Undertake major field layout improvement prior to winter. Start ground preparation early enough to ensure sowing on time. Land surface should be level and uniform enough to suit sowing method. Depending on variety, field layout and soil conditions, sow 125 kg seed/ha when aerial sowing and 135 kg seed/ha when drill sowing. KeyCheck or Expected Outputs: Achieve 150 to 300 plants/m2 established through permanent watering at 25 days after seeding. CROP NUTRITION: Reason: Split Nitrogen Strategy - two steps which are important to high yields.

Recommended Actions: Apply sufficient pre-flood nitrogen to achieve optimum growth at panicle initiation, apply phosphorus if a deficiency is indicated by paddock and/or soil test, and top dress nitrogen at panicle initiation based on shoot counts and NIR analysis using the Rice NIR Tissue Test. KeyCheck or Expected Outputs: At panicle initiation the Amaroo, Bogan, Illabong and Jarrah (rice varieties) should have 700 - 1100 shoots/m 2 and a leaf nitrogen content (NIR) of 1.2 - 2.2% N; while the Pelde, Doongara, Goolarah, YRF9 and YRL34 (rice varieties) should have 500-900 shoots/m2 and a NIR 1.2 - 2.0%. International Year of Rice 2004 12000 10000 Yield (kg/ha) 8000 6000 4000 2000 2000 1998

1996 1994 1992 1990 1988 1986 1984 1982 1980 1978 1976 1974 1972

1970 0 Figure 4 Australian rice yield, 1970 to 2000 (Source: FAOSTAT) International Year of Rice 2004 FAO PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF RICECHECK 2000 Expert Consultation Observed that the closing of the existing yield gap would require an integrated system that has technologies for all activities in rice production The integrated system should have a built-in mechanism aiming at enhancing farmers knowledge in crop management The Australian RiceCheck system is the most promising for closing the yield gap in rice production in a sustainable manner Recommended that FAO and its member countries develop and disseminate the RiceCheck system to close the exisiting yield gap. International Year of Rice 2004

FAO PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF RICECHECK Activities during 2001-2003 Collaboration with member countries to develop and test modified version of RiceCheck Indonesia: RiceCheck with 5 crop management areas A target of 270 tillers/m2 at 22 days after transplanting is required for yield of 8 t/ha Transplanting 2-3 seedlings/hill at 20cm x 20cm increased N-use efficiency by 17% Farmers achieved 5 target values increased yield by 23% and benefit by 165% Vietnam: Saved 50% of seed used in direct seeding and reduced N-rate by 20% Brazil and Venezuela: Increased yield by 30% International Year of Rice 2004

FAO PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF RICECHECK Present and Future Activities TCP project in Fiji, Philippines, Rwanda and Thailand CFC funded project in Brazil and Venezuela through FLAR Japan-UN funded projects in Ghana and Sierra Leone, recently approved Assist Indonesia, Sudan and Vietnam to formulate TCP as requested International Year of Rice 2004 CONCLUSIONS Expert Consultation 2000

Noted that the situation of global rice production calls for efforts to enhance the productivity and efficiency in rice production Observed that there is still a large yield gap and the closing of this gap could substantially increase the productivity of irrigated rice production systems, and that the effective closing of the existing yield gap requires integrated systems approach Identified the Australian RiceCheck system as a potential tool for closing yield gap and for increasing productivity and efficiency in irrigated rice production International Year of Rice 2004 CONCLUSIONS FAO Programme on RiceCheck Initial results demonstrated that the modified versions of the Australian RiceCheck systems are promising for closing yield gap and increasing the productivity of irrigated rice production in developing countries. They also indicated that potentially, the RiceCheck system can be updated for achieving the rice production that respects the environment, once environmental indicators (e.g., level of

pesticides in water, content of cadmium in rice grain, etc.) are made available by research. FAO will continue to collaborate with member countries and all stake-holders concerned in the development and dissemination of RiceCheck systems. International Year of Rice 2004 THANK YOU International Year of Rice 2004

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