World War I 1914-1918 Causes of the war Technology of the war Military techniques / Battles War at Home Total War US / Russia and the end of the war
Traditional European Rules of War 1. A country must declare war before attacking another country. 2. Each side must wear uniforms or
identify themselves to each other before attacking. Soldiers wearing an enemy uniform will be shot as a spy. Traditional European Rules of War 3. Commanding officers should not be targeted
4. Civilians, Surrendering Soldiers and Medical Personnel will not be attacked. Traditional European Rules of War 5.
Hand to Hand combat is honorable, shooting from a distance is cowardly 6. Soldiers must be given the opportunity to surrender honorably.
Roots of War Long Term Causes Nationalism Deep Devotion to Ones Nation Competition and Rivalry developed between European nations for territory and markets (Example France and GermanyAlsace-Lorraine)
Long Term Causes Militarism Glorifying Military Power Keeping a large standing army prepared for war Arms race for military technology Long Term Causes
Imperialism European competition for colonies Quest for colonies often almost led to war Imperialism led to rivalry and mistrust amongst European nations Long Term Causes Alliance
System- Designed to keep peace in Europe, instead pushed continent towards war Many Alliances made in secret By 1907 two major alliances: Triple
Alliance and Triple Entente The Two Sides Triple Alliance Triple Entente Germany Austria-Hungary Italy
Central Powers England France Russia Allied Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire
England, France, Russia, United States, Italy, Serbia, Belgium, Switzerland Leaders Triple Alliance Triple Entente
Kaiser Wilhelm II David Lloyd George (Germany) (England) Franz Joseph I
Raymond Poincare (Austria-Hungary) (France) Vittorio Orlando Czar Nicholas II
(Italy) (Russia) Major Colonies Triple Entente France- Vietnam,
Parts of Africa England- Africa, Australia, Hong Kong, India, Canada, S. America Triple Alliance
Germany- Africa, Parts of Asia Short-Term Cause June 28th 1914
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Summer of 1914 Triple Entente/Triple Alliance Actions
July 23rd Austria Hungary Presents Serbia with an ultimatum July 28th Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 29th Russia Mobilizes its troops August 1, 1914 Germany mobilizes troops. Summer of 1914 Triple Entente/Triple Alliance Actions
August 2nd Germany declares war on Russia Germany invades Poland and Luxemburg,
invasion of France starts August 3: Germany declares war on France August 4: Germany declares war on Belgium and invades it, August 4:England declares war on Germany August 5: Austria declares war on Russia and Great Britain Who Declared War on Who?
Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia Russia Declares War on Austria Hungary Germany Declares War on Russia Germany Declares War on France England Declares War on Germany and
Austria Hungary By the end of 1914, not only Europe was at war, but also all of Europes colonies in Asia, Africa and South America. Modern Warfare
New Technology Guns The It Machine Gun was used by both sides, hundreds of rounds a minute could be shot by
one person. The German plan against France was to rush into the country as fast as possible: The Schlieffen Plan The
Machine Gun stopped this plan Trench Warfare Both sides dug long trenches that faced each other. The trenches ran for miles.
From time to time, one side would attempt to cross the No-Mans Land the area in between the trenches. Trench warfare made WWI extend from a few months of fighting to four years of fighting French Soldiers Attacking a
German Trench Technology: Chemical Weapons WWI was the first major war to use chemical weapons Mustard Gas and Chlorine Gas were the two most popular weapons: They caused suffocation, blindness, and death
Soldiers would protect themselves using Gas Masks Technology: The U-boat (Submarine) Germanys secret weapon during the
war Sank dozens of British ships, controlled the oceans. Why would the British think the Uboat was breaking the rules of War ? Technology: Airpower
Both sides used aircraft for observation, limited bombing, and air battles Airplanes were slow, clumsy, and unreliable,
The most famous German pilot was Baron von Richthofen (The Red Baron) Red Baron Technology: Tanks Technology:
Tanks Technology: Flame Throwers The Great War Western Front Germans, Austria-Hungarians vs. French,
British and later Americans Germany develops the Schlieffen Plan Battle of the Marne (1914- German Defeat)
Trench Warfare on the Western Front Western Front: Battles Battle of Verdun
Ten months long French and German armies. Estimated 540,000 French and 430,000 German casualties No strategic advantages were gained for either side.
Battle of Somme English and French vs Germany Six months of fighting Five miles of advancement for Allies
1 million men killed Eastern Front Russians and Serbs vs. Germans and Austria-Hungarians
War more mobile but still a stalemate Russias disadvantages
Not Industrialized Short on Supplies Russias advantage People Eastern Front: Battles
Battle of Tannenberg: August 1914- First major eastern battle. Russia was badly defeated and pushed back. Russia lost millions of men against Germany, undersupplied, under gunned
Other Fronts Japan, Australia, India join Allies Ottoman Turks, Bulgaria join Central Powers
Gallipoli Campaign in the Ottoman Empire Battles occur in Africa and Asia for Colonial Possessions Russia Exits the War
In March 1917, Nicholas II abdicates his throne, the Russian Duma continues to fight.
In October 1917: Lenin and the Bolsheviks take command: The Soviet Union is created. March 1918: Soviets and Germans sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending the war in the East. US claims Neutrality I didnt raise my boy to be a soldier I brought him up to be my pride and joy Who dares to place a musket on his
shoulder, To shoot some other mothers darling boy? US Road to War British Blockade did not allow products to leave or enter Germany
German U-Boat Response counter to blockade, destroy all boats headed for British shores US Road to War May 7th 1915 Sinking of the Lusitania 1916 Presidential Election
And the Winner is Woodrow Wilson Because he kept us out of the war US Road to War The Last Straw
Zimmerman Note US Declares War Senate Declares War April 4th 1917
House of Representatives Declares War April 6th 1917 Wilsons reasoning for War make the world Safe for Democracy War on the Homefront World War I as a Total War
All Resources devoted to homefront Govt took over factories to make Military goods All had to work (Women took place of men in
factories) Rationing- limit consumption of resources/goods necessary for the war effort Propaganda- one-sided information to keep support
for the war Propaganda US Propaganda Great Britain Propaganda Germany
Total Warfare in the US Ending the War 1917-1918
US Enters the War in April of 1917 March 1918 Russia and Germany sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Germans now use all resources on Western Front March of 1918 Germany begins a massive attack on France Ending the War (1918)
The Tide Turns German troops fatigued US had 140,000 fresh troops 2nd Battle of the Marne (June 1918) Central Powers Crumble
Revolutions in Austria Hungary Ottoman Empire surrenders German soldiers mutiny, public turns against Kaiser Wilhelm II Ending the War (1918)
Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates on November 9th 1918
11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918 Germany agrees to a cease-fire 8.5 million soldiers dead 21 million soldiers wounded Cost of 338 billion dollars Ending the War The Paris Peace Conference
Meeting of the Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference Wilson Proposes his 14 points Big Four create Treaty of Versailles
War Guilt Clause Break up of German, Austrian, Russian and Ottoman Empire Reparations Legacy of bitterness and betrayal Effects of World War I
Before World War I feeling of optimism and progress of Human Kind After the War feelings of pessimism New forms of Art, Literature, Philosophy and Science
(ex. Surrealism, Lost Generation, Psychoanalysis, Existentialism)
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