World War I

World War I

World War I review questions & notes Geographic divisions, divisions in time, and other ways of dividing the war. Review Question #1, a & b. a) Which countries made up the Allies up to 1917? And after 1917? a) up to 1917 = Great Britain, France, and Russia, After 1917 = Great Britain, France, U.S.A. b) Which countries

made up the Central Powers? b) Germany, AustroHungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire. Review Question #2 Which country had a long-standing feud, or grudge, towards Germany, and why? France--Germany had defeated France in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870 and imposed harsh

peace terms. And this picture shows how the Germans added insult to the injury of those terms Picture of signing of victory celebration of Germans in Hall of Mirrors in Palace of Versailles removed to make PwrPt file size smaller for loading on website. and when France (and Britain and the U.S.) forced Germany to sign a harsh, humiliating peace terms, where do you think they chose

for the ceremony? Picture of signing of Treaty of Versailles removed to make PwrPt file size smaller for loading on website. In 1870, Germany took the provinces of Alsae and Lorraine from France and in

1919, France took Alsae and Lorraine back from Germany. and (sort of) too the Rhine River valley, or Rhineland as well, by making it a demilitarized zone. But this is getting a bit ahead of matters--more on the

peace terms later. Review Question #3, a & b a) Which country had to fight on two fronts-east and west-at the same time? b) What did that country do to deal with this problem? a) Germany: France to the west, and Russia to the east. b) It had the

Schlieffen Plan: defeat France quickly by going through Belgium, then face Russia. Geographical Divisions Trench warfare--what we think of when when people talk about WW 1, characterized the WESTERN FRONT. In Europe there were 2 fronts: The Western front was in Northern

France, from Switzerland to the English Channel The Eastern front was in (surprise!) Eastern Europe. Trench Warfare Digging in = only way to be (somewhat) safe vs. artillery, machine guns, etc. (partly due to being so close to enemy: 50-100 yards, in places). Defensive strength of trenches was SO great that neither side could overcome the other;

result = 4 years of stalemate. Horrors of Trench Warfare Efforts to overcome trenches MASSIVE frontal assault (with artillery-walking bombardment, etc.) Diagram/dwaring of trenches removed to make PwrPt file size smaller for loading on website. Mining Poison gas Tanks Result of failure of these was war of attrition: win by using

up enemys resources (soldiers, war materiel, etc.) War of attrition = disheartening. Long term effect: disillusioned, disheartened view of the war, of war & Western society in general. Homefront -- Due to the nature of the war (grinding down of enemy/war of resources and production), keeping Picture of signing of 4 propaganda posters removed to make PwrPt file size smaller for loading on website. domestic support for the war was important. -- Propaganda was used to rally civilians to bear sacrifices

(death of loved ones, rationing), continue war production work, etc. -- Civilians were also targeted in air raids and by sinking ships. The U.S. Entered the War Picture of signing of 3 Lusitania related images removed to make PwrPt file size smaller for loading on website. Due to the sinking of ships with U.S. civilians or (non-military) sailors, Due to them

Zimmerman Telegram: German inviting Mexico to attack the U.S. but also: just as Russia dropped out. End of the War 5 images removed to make PwrPt file size smaller for loading on website. Horrors of trench warfare, and overall suffering of the war led to harsh peace terms. Woodrow Wilson (U.S. President) tries force peace-keeping terms: 14 Points (see hand-out)

Germany views peace terms as impossible/unfair--sees itself as victim (Hitler plays on this). WW2 results. Lost Generation--even the survivors suffer, but also, a whole generation of young men were lost. European dominance is shaken. Modern Middle East takes shape. Memorials to WW 1 images removed to make PwrPt file size smaller for loading on website. The last few veterans of the war have passed on, But we keep the day

that ended the war as THE day to thank and honor veterans: 11th month, 11th day, 11th hour (called Armistice Day elsewhere).

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