World War II Home Front - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools
World War II: The Home Front Essential Questions How did America initially respond to the events leading to WWII? How did the war change the American home front, both culturally and socially? How did the war transform the U.S. economy both immediately and in the long term? How did the war affect minority groups during the period? What effect did the war have on American industry? How did the war unify America in a common purpose?
The Arsenal of Democracy America officially neutral as European war began FDR increased military production and skirted Neutrality Acts after Nazi victories FDR ran for third term Lend-Lease Act passed U.S. embargoed oil and scrapiron sales to Japan The Election of 1940
In this map of electoral results, FDR is indicated in green, Willkie in red FDR won unprecedented third term Defeated Willkie Both candidates considered internationalists The America First
Committee Formed in 1940 An estimated 800,000 members at its height Most prominent member was Charles Lindbergh Advocated building up U.S. defenses and staying out of Europes problems Dissolved four days after Pearl Harbor
Charles Lindbergh speaking at an America First rally FDRs Four Freedoms FDRs 1941 State of the Union address Early in his third term Equated aid to Britain with protecting universal freedoms An excerpt from the speech
From the Four Freedoms Speech In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expressioneverywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his wayeverywhere in the world. The third is freedom from wantwhich, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitantseverywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fearwhich, translated into world terms, means a worldwide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical
aggression against any neighboranywhere in the world. Selective Service Act of 1940 FDR signs the Selective Service Act into law First peacetime draft in U.S. All men aged 2135 required to register; later 1865 Required men picked
for duty to serve 12 months Service in the U.S. or its possessions Discussion Questions 1. What steps did FDR take toward making the U.S. the Arsenal of Democracy? 2. What was the America First Committee? Who were some of its more famous members? Why did it disband? 3. How did FDR explain the need to provide aid to Britain in his Four Freedoms speech? Why do
you think that FDR took this approach? Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Carrier-based Japanese planes bombed naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii More than 2400 Americans killed U.S. Pacific fleet temporarily crippled
The USS Arizona burns during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor: The Nature of the Attack Japanese aerial view of Pearl Harbor under attack Japanese intended to knock out U.S. military power Aircraft carriers followed less detectable northern route
U.S. officials knew of a coming attack, but not at Pearl Harbor Not meant to be a sneak attack FDRs War Message Delivered to Congress on December 8, 1941 Only one member of Congress voted against declaring war Germany declared
war on the U.S. a few days later FDR signs the declaration of war with Japan FDRs War Message: A Significant Change FDR changed the first line, which included the phrase, a date which will live in world history FDRs reading copy
found after 43 years FDRs annotated draft copy of his speech German Agents in the U.S. Four German agents landed at Amagansett, NY (June 1942) Four others near Jacksonville, FL Both groups had maps, explosives, cash Planned to sabotage factories,
bridges, other installations FBI arrested both groups Trial of captured German saboteurs, July 1942 U-Boats in the Western Atlantic A German U-boat Operation Paukenschlag East Coast essentially undefended
U-boats sank over 500 ships in the U.S. defense zone, July December 1942 U.S. 10th Fleet fought against U-boats in western Atlantic Sank 65 U-boats in six months Japanese Balloon Bombs Carried anti-personnel and incendiary bombs Floated to the West Coast Killed six picnickers in Oregon in 1945
A balloon bomb Civil Defense Fears of attack by Axis Powers on U.S. mainland Office of Civilian Defense Civil Air Patrol and Civil Defense Corps Performed various protective services The WWII-era Civil Defense logo
The War Powers Act Gave the president sweeping powers to conduct the war President allowed to initiate and terminate war contracts Government agencies set for wartime priorities Foreign assets also frozen Censorship allowed, though media generally censored themselves Discussion Questions 1. What were the immediate effects on the U.S. of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
2. What were some ways in which the Germans and Japanese tried to directly attack the U.S.? 3. What did the War Powers Act give FDR the authority to do in conducting the war? New Recruits Over 60,000 enlisted immediately after Pearl Harbor Military training facilities overwhelmed Not enough barracks or materiel Recruits processed, then sent to basic training
Recruits broke down cultural and class barriers Recruits arriving at the naval training center in San Diego Basic Training Army recruits practice calisthenics at Camp Robinson, Arkansas, in 1942 Designed to build strength and stamina
Obstacle courses, forced marches, marksmanship Instilled a strong sense of discipline Marshall and Mobilization Army underfunded and underdeveloped in late 1930s Marshall became Army Chief of Staff Convinced FDR and
Congress to provide increased manpower and funding General George C. Marshall Women in the War Effort Took over many jobs for servicemen, most notably in heavy industry Some joined the military Altered family life, brought several drawbacks
A poster urging women to take manufacturing jobs to help the war effort The Womens Army Corps WAC Director Col. Oveta Culp Hobby (right) confers with WAC members at Mitchell Field, NY Marshall noted British success in using
women for noncombat duties Congress created Womens Auxiliary Army Corps in 1942 WAAC later renamed Womens Army Corps WAVEs Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service Navy program similar
to WACs Did not serve overseas Nurses, clerical work, communications jobs A WAVES recruitment poster explaining the pay scale for members WASPs Four WASPs receive final instructions as they chart a cross-country course
Womens Airforce Service Pilots Aviators Cochran and Love proposed idea separately Performed noncombat flight duties Freed male pilots for combat missions Women in the Workforce Women were encouraged to work in
defense plants Others grew Victory Gardens and helped with recycling for the war effort Generally earned less than male workers Factory workers polish Plexiglas nose cones for A-20 attack bombers Rosie the Riveter A symbol of working
women during the war Based on factory worker Rose Will Monroe Miller and Rockwell both created iconic Rosie images This poster for the Westinghouse Corporation is frequently associated with Rosie the Riveter Discussion Questions 1. What role did General George C. Marshall play in mobilizing the armed forces early in the war?
2. How did women contribute to the U.S. war effort? Office of War Information Established in 1942 Coordinated release of war news Promoted patriotism Tried to recruit women into factory work Propaganda program abroad The Voice of America
Patch worn by Office or War Information personnel Wartime Propaganda Posters Government propagandists sometimes used fear and racial slurs in order to convey their message Donald Duck in Nutziland Produced by Disney in 1943 Donald Duck dreams he works on a German munitions line
Bandleader Spike Jones recorded Der Fuehrers Face Name of cartoon later changed to reflect song title Chorus to Der Fuehrers Face: When der fuehrer says we is de master race We heil heil right in der fueher's face
Not to love der fuehrer is a great disgrace So we heil heil right in der fuehrer's face 1940s Movies A scene depicting the Nazi propaganda machine, from one of Frank Capras Why We Fight films Feature films included war themes
Nazis and Japanese portrayed as buffoons or villains Patriotism also a common theme Characters such as Sherlock Holmes and Tarzan battled Nazis Documentaries by Capra and Wyler also popular Mobilization of Industry Dr. Win the War replaced Dr. New Deal Many civilian industries converted to war production
Manpower needed for defense plants Scarce goods rationed and price controls established Disputes between management and labor to resolve Workers assembling an aircraft A Production Miracle Axis Powers underestimated American production Many factories and
businesses converted to war production New industries emerged Output significantly increased Liberty Ships The SS Carlos Carrillo, a Liberty ship later made into a troop carrier Usually cargo ships Developed by
Henry Kaiser Featured welded hulls Many sections prefabricated By 1943, three entered service daily Fords Willow Run Facility Built B-24 Liberator bombers Worlds largest factory under one roof Produced 14 aircraft
per day in August 1944 Workers at the Willow Run facility assemble B-24 bombers, 1943 Discussion Questions 1. What was the purpose of the Office of War Information? How did it accomplish this? 2. How did the film industry contribute to the war effort in the 1940s? What were some significant productions? 3. What techniques did Henry Kaiser introduce to dramatically increase production of Liberty
ships? War Production Board Ensured that the military had the resources it needed Directed industrial output Prohibited nonessential business activities Allocated raw materiel Organized scrap drives A War Educational Bulletin produced by the War Production Board
Scrap Drives Results of a scrap rubber drive Organized by the WPB Encouraged collection of waste and scrap goods for war use Materiel included iron, aluminum, paper Waste cooking fats for making glycerin
Scrap Drives: Posters The government used posters and publicity pictures of celebrities such as Rita Hayworth (right) to encourage citizens to recycle scrap items. Office of War Mobilization Created in 1943 by FDR
Headed by James Byrnes Became dominant mobilization agency Byrnes worked well with labor and with the military OWM head James F. Byrnes The Truman Committee Created to expose
waste and fraud in the defense industry Truman personally inspected factories and military installations Saved taxpayers millions Senator Harry S. Truman War Manpower Commission Headed by former IN governor Paul McNutt Balanced the militarys
recruiting needs with requirements of agriculture and industry Gave deferments to certain groups Oversaw the draft until 1943 WMC head Paul McNutt Discussion Questions 1. What were the functions of the War Production Board? 2. What was the Truman Committee? How did its work contribute to the war effort?
3. What made scrap drives so necessary to the war effort? What types of materiel did they collect? Financing the War U.S. spent more than $321 billion (more than $3 trillion today) National debt increased dramatically More Americans required to pay income taxes War-bond sales raised needed revenue War Bonds Used to help finance the war
More than $185 billion sold Bought by businesses, banks, and civilians Celebrities helped with bond drives High interest rates An example of a $100 war bond War Bonds: Posters Posters such as these sought to convince Americans that they should
help the war effort and stop the enemy by buying war bonds Office of Price Administration Designed to limit wartime inflation Established ceiling prices for many goods Rationed scarce goods and many consumer staples Rationing stopped at end of war Dissolved in 1947
Rationing Children learning to tally points and ration stamps Way to allocate scarce goods Included meat, butter, sugar, coffee, shoes Stamps and points system Gasoline rationing
particularly complex Black market emerged Rationing: Books and Stamps Each family received ration books (left) and stamps (above) for determining its monthly allotment. Discussion Questions 1. About how much did WWII cost the U.S. government? How did the federal government raise revenue to pay for the war?
2. How did purchasing war bonds help the average citizen? How did they help the war effort? 3. How did the Office of Price Administration prevent wartime inflation? How did its system for rationing goods work? Victory Gardens Government urged citizens to grow fruits and vegetables Eased food shortages caused by rationing Nearly 20 million
started gardens More than nine million tons of produces A government poster promoting Victory Gardens National Housing Agency Housing construction ceased, except for defense purposes Relocation caused housing shortages in many cities NHA established in 1942 Combined and coordinated housing and loan
programs National War Labor Board Arbitrated labor disputes during war Board comprised of representatives from management, labor, and government No-strike pledge Some wildcat strikes still occurred
Guardsmen carry Sewell Avery, president of Montgomery Ward, from his office for failing to comply with NWLR rulings The Wars Economic Impact Nominal GDP more than doubled
Wages and salaries nearly tripled Federal civilian employment more than tripled Female employment up by a third Labor union membership grew by over 50 percent National debt ballooned by over 600 percent Geographic Shifts in the Economy South saw great prosperity Millions of jobs in textiles, chemicals, and aluminum Southern shipyards and aircraft plants grew West became economic
powerhouse California especially benefited An Army sentry guards new B-17 F from federal expenditures (Flying Fortress) bombers at the airfield of Boeing's Seattle plant Discussion Questions 1. Why did the federal government encourage Americans to grow Victory Gardens? What impact did these have on the war effort? 2. What sorts of strategies did the government employ regarding housing issues? Regarding
disputes between labor and management? 3. What effects did the war have on the U.S. economy from 1940 to 1945? Japanese American Internment A map of relocation centers in the western U.S. FDR issued Executive Order 9066 Removed more than
110,000 Issei (Japanese nationals) and Nisei (Japanese Americans) from the West Coast About two-thirds were citizens Prejudice Against Nisei Long history of antiJapanese sentiment in California Falsely accused Nisei of helping plan Pearl Harbor
No evidence of sabotage or espionage ever found This propaganda poster displays typical American-held stereotypes of the Japanese I Am an American Some Nisei tried to demonstrate patriotism Interned regardless Most Japanese
accepted internment Wanted to show their loyalty to the U.S. Despite this Oakland, California, grocers sign, he was interned and his business sold Life in the Camps Nisei forced to sell homes, businesses, property Lost an estimated $2 billion Poor conditions: Barbed-wire enclosures
Barracks with cots and no plumbing Meager food budget Low temperatures Manzanar Manzanar in the winter Located in California Best known of relocation camps Camp held nearly
12,000 internees Extremes in climate Closed in November 1945 Korematsu v. U.S. (1942) Korematsu refused to obey the relocation order Appealed conviction on constitutional grounds Supreme Court ruled the order a valid use of presidential power in wartime Decision vacated in 1984, due to governmentwithheld evidence in the first trial The 442nd Regimental
Combat Team Formed in 1943 Made up of Nisei Fought with distinction in Italy and France Most decorated combat unit in U.S. history Members of the 442nd hiking through France, late 1944
Civil Liberties Act of 1988 Sponsored by Simpson and Mineta, a former internee Government formally apologized Paid $20,000 to each surviving internee 1992 act added enough money to cover all remaining internees Government apologized again Norman Mineta Discussion Questions
1. Why did the government feel it necessary to relocate both Issei and Nisei? What was the purpose of Executive Order 9066? 2. What kinds of stereotypes did white Americans tend to hold about Japanese Americans? 3. Do you think that the government was justified in interning Nisei, even though they were American citizens? Why or why not? Internment of Other Groups German Americans and nationals, and Italian Americans and nationals
More than 10,000 Germans and 3000 Italians interned Camps similar to those for Nisei No evidence of espionage or treason German American and Italian American internees at Ellis Island, 1943 African Americans and the War The irony of fighting a racist regime in Europe
while experiencing racism at home Blacks found limited employment in defense plants Race riots broke out in many cities African Americans looked for equality in the workplace and in the military The Double V Campaign The campaigns logo Created in 1942 by the Pittsburgh Courier, a leading black
newspaper Called for victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad Dorie Miller A hero of the Pearl Harbor attack Not initially recommended for any commendation
Later received Navy Cross Killed in the invasion of the Gilbert Islands A poster featuring Miller The Tuskegee Airmen All-black combat unit formed in 1941 99th Fighter Squadron formed in AL Commanded by Davis Escorted bombers over
central Europe Proved superior or equal to white pilots Airmen Marcellus G. Smith and Roscoe C. Brown in Italy, 1945 Randolph and the Fair Employment Act Influential labor leader Proposed a 1941 March on Washington to protest discrimination
FDR convinced him to cancel march; enacted Fair Employment Act A. Philip Randolph meets with first lady Eleanor Roosevelt The Navajo Code Talkers Code Talkers Henry Bake and George Kirk send messages in the Pacific Theater, 1943
Used to transmit messages in the Pacific Theater Based on the Navajo language Navajo words frequently substituted for military terms Code never broken The Bracero Program Established due to wartime labor shortage
Experienced Mexican laborers brought in for CA farm work; expanded nationwide Braceros also worked for U.S. railroads Reported human rights abuses Lawsuits filed to collect savings withheld from braceros pay A bracero Zoot Suit Riots Los Angeles, 1943
Conflicts between sailors on leave and young Mexican Americans, identifiable by their dress African Americans and Filipinos wearing zoot suits also targeted Military eventually placed LA offlimits to servicemen A zoot suit Discussion Questions 1. What groups other than Japanese Americans did the government relocate? Why? 2. How did the war impact African Americans? In
what ways did African Americans prove themselves as capable of serving as other groups? 3. Why did the government bring in braceros to work in the U.S.? What industries did they work in? Service Flags Commonly displayed throughout U.S. A blue star indicated a relative on active duty A gold star meant that a relative had died while on active duty
Blue Star (and Gold Star) Mothers clubs A Service Flag with three stars The Sullivan Brothers From Waterloo, IA Enlisted in the Navy on the condition they would serve together Assigned to the USS Juneau All five killed at Guadalcanal in 1942
The Election of 1944 This map of electoral votes indicates Dewey in red and FDR in green FDR practically assured a fourth term Truman selected as running mate Defeated NY governor
Thomas Dewey Roosevelt Dies April 12, 1945 At his retreat in Warm Springs, GA Only a few weeks before the end of the war in Europe Widely mourned FDRs funeral procession moves down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington D.C.
Truman Takes Office Vice president for only 82 days Oversaw last months of the war Authorized use of the atomic bomb President during the early Cold War Truman takes the oath of office shortly after FDRs death
V-E Day and V-J Day Tens of thousands crowd Times Square to celebrate the Japanese surrender, New York City Victory in Europe, May 67, 1945 Victory Over Japan, Sept. 2, 1945 Celebrations marked the end of the war Nation still had to deal
with postwar issues The GI Bill Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 An attempt to thwart a social and economic crisis Stalled in Congress as House and Senate hammered out a compromise Bill provided for education and training, low-cost loans, unemployment benefits
Stamp commemorating the GI Bill Discussion Questions 1. How did people on the home front show that they had family members who were in the service or were killed in action? 2. How did FDRs declining health affect both the election of 1944 and the end of the war? 3. How did the government try to help returning servicemen readjust to civilian life?
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