Writing a research report in APA-style Vesalius College SOC-203 Scientific research Descriptive Secundary sources Natural observation Case studies Correlational studies Ex Post Facto research Survey Participant observation Experimental Cause and effect relations through
Controlled experiments Main features of the scientific method Control External (intermediating) variables are excluded OR kept constant in order to understand causes ofobservations Operational definitions Terms defined by operations required to measure them improves communication, minimal ambiguity
Replication Reliability of results: does replication lead to the same results? (inter-group, inter-subject, intrasubject, ) Operational definitions Not-operational Hunger Good salesman Fear Operational 8h without food Sells a lot, provides client with correct information, helpful, Answers to fear
questionnaire, Galvanic Skin Response, Amount of droppings in rats Problem is established in verbal concepts (notoperational), then operationalised. Conclusions are stated in verbal concepts Goals of science DESCRIBE and EXPLAIN phenomena and so be able to PREDICT and CONTROL them DESCRIBE (ex Piaget, Freud) EXPLAIN (antecedents and causes) PREDICT (ex weather, succeeding in college) CONTROL (trigger wanted phenomena by manipulation of causes) Scientific method
research is a stepwise process Problem identification Hypothesis formation Make research problem researchable Experimental design control / measurement of all relevant variables Execution of experiment participants, instructions, staff, debriefing, data Hypothesis testing suitable data-analyse, interpretation of results Communication of results scientific publication Research process and research report Research process Hypothesis
Design Experiment Testing Reporting Problem definition Approach to problem Research design Field work
Data preparation & Analysis Report preparation & Presentation Results Conclusion Research report Title Abstract Introduction
Methods References Appendix Figure 19.3 The Report Preparation and Presentation Process Problem Definition, Approach, Research Design, and Field Work Data Analysis Interpretation, Conclusions, and Recommendations Report Preparation Oral Presentation Reading of the Report by the Client Research Follow-up A report in APA-style Title page Abstract
Body (introduction, method, results, conclusion) References Tables and Pictures Extras: content / index, appendix, APA-formatted references Journal articles Roy, A. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Child and Family Studies, 141, 171-177. Book Struck, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Web page, no author, no date GVUs 8th WWW user suvey. (n.d.) Retrieved September 19, 2001, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/ APA-formatted figure Figure Caption Figure 1. JPEG image of child and bipolar adjectives rating scale. Please rate the child [Laurie, Larry, no name] on each of the following items, placing a mark in the space nearest the adjective you feel best describes the child. firm:__:__:__:__:__:soft big:__:__:__:__:__:little strong:__:__:__:__:__:weak hardy:__:__:__:__:__:delicate
well-coordinated:__:__:__:__:__:awkward beautiful:__:__:__:__:__:plain Figure 19.4 Pie Chart of Total Hewlett Packard Sales Other 3% IT Services 14% Imaging and Printing Systems 41% Computing Systems 42% Figure 19.5 Line Chart of Total Hewlett Packard Sales Billions of Dollars
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 19.6 A Pictograph of Hewlett Packard Sales
Figure 19.7 Histogram of Hewlett Packards Sales 60 50 Billions of Dollars 40 30 20 10 0 1996 1997
1998 1999 2000 APA-formatted table Table 19.2 Hewlett-Packard Sales: 19962000 Year Net Revenue (Billions of Dollars) 1996 31.6 1997
35.5 1998 39.4 1999 42.4 2000 48.8 Source: The 2000 Annual Report, Hewlett-Packard Company Information & LINKS Publication manual of the APA
American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. - 5th ed. - Washington (D.C.) : APA 439 p. : ill. ISBN 1-55798-790-4 VUB library: Centrale Bibliotheek: 159.9 B APA 2001 Essentials http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc_id=796 Summary of Publication Manual http://www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-crib.html General information
http://www.apastyle.org Q&A http://webster.commnet.edu/apa/apa_index.htm Examples for references http://www.crk.umn.edu/library/links/apa5th.htm http://www.lib.usm.edu/~instruct/guides/apa.html
References Awad MA, Hargreaves JA, Thompson GW. Dental caries and fluorosis in 7--9 and 11--14 year old children who received fluoride supplements from birth. J Can Dent Assoc 1994;60:318--22. ... in the morning & prior to bed in the evening....
The therapist has to be flexible...(Norcross & Lambert, Beutler, ...) The therapist has to be responsively open to the feedback of the client, and customize his/her way of working as much as possible to the unique client in front of...
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The Primary Care Almanac. Or ... https://vssc.med.va.gov. Just as a reminder, you can access your Almanac from the tools menu in CPRS (It may be listed differently than you see here) or by logging into VSSC at VSSC.med.va.gov. It is...
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