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Random QuestionQuestion Home 1 State what is meant by the term software.(1)

Programs, routines and procedures that can run on a computer system, utilising the hardware. Home 2 Describe what is meant by the term operating system.(1)

A suite of programs that manage the operation of a computer system as a whole, e.g. Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android, etc. Home 3 State what is meant by the term user interface?

(1) The means by which a user can interact with a computer, providing both input and output functions. Home 4

Describe two different types of user interface that could be used to operate a computer.(2) GUI (graphical user interface (1). Users control the computer through the manipulation of graphical elements on screen, such as buttons, forms and menus (1). CLI (command-line interface) (1) a purely textbased interface where the user types in and executes structured commands (1).

Home 5 State what is meant by the term Memory management (1) Software which automatically handles the changing memory requirements of programs

Home 6 State what is meant by the following operating system functions: Peripheral management. (1) Software responsible for handling input, output and storage devices

Home 7 State what is meant by the following operating system functions: (1) software. Programs, routines and procedures that can run

on a computer system, utilising the hardware. Home 8 State what is meant by the following operating system functions: Security.

Software which protects the computer against threats such as spyware/viruses Home 9 Explain how a computer can multi-task, working on numerous jobs or programs at the same

time.(3) Each processor operates on a scheduling strategy, which allows individual tasks to be allocated processing time (1). A single processor cannot really work on more than one task at once, but it can give the illusion that it is, by repeatedly switching between tasks (1). Computers with multi-core CPUs can utilise their multiple processors, but there are still usually more tasks to work on than the CPU has cores (1). [3]

Home 10 What is meant by utility software?. System software designed to help analyse, configure, optimise or maintain a computer. Home

11 Describe two common utility programs used for computer security. (2) Firewalls (1) controls traffic going in and out of networks, designed to prevent unauthorised access from outsiders while allowing legitimate communication (1).

Anti-virus/anti-spyware (1) software used to prevent, detect and remove various types of malware (1). [4] Home 12 Describe the function and purpose of defragmentation software. (2)

Defragmentation is designed to speed up read and write access on a hard drive (1). It does this by moving the files physically closer together on the disk and organising them in a more efficient way (1).[2] Home 13

Describe one other utility program used for disk organisation.(1) Formatting software (1) to prepare rewritable data storage mediums for new use (1) File manager (1) user interface tool to assist with the organisation of file systems (1) Home

14 State the purpose of the following system maintenance tools: (i) System Cleanup Attempts to speed up the computer by removing unneeded files and fixing registry issues

Home 15 State the purpose of the following system maintenance tools: (i) System Information Provides information about the hardware and

software configuration of the computer, and attempts to identify potential problems Home 16 State the purpose of the following system maintenance tools: (i) Automatic Update

Installs bug fixes and improvements to the software and OS without requiring the user to do anything manually Home 17 Explain the difference between custom-written and off-the-shelf software (2)

Custom-written software is unique, written specifically to meet the needs of a particular client (1). Off-the-shelf software is commercially available and developed for the general market (1). Home 18

Describe one advantage of using custom-written software. (1) Advantages examples (1 mark max): The software/system will only have features that the business needs (1) The software/system will work exactly how the business wants it to (1) Home

19 Describe one disadvantage of using customwritten software. (1) It can take a long time to develop custom software/systems (1) Custom software/systems are expensive to implement (1) Very limited support due to the uniqueness of the software/system (1)

Home 20 State what is meant by the term software. Programs, routines and procedures that can run on a computer system, utilising the hardware.

Home 21 Decide whether the following statements apply to open-source software or proprietary software. Software usually has extensive help features, and software is tested and maintained

updated to ensure it is robust Proprietary Home 22 Decide whether the following statements apply to open-source software or proprietary software.

Software is free to use and can be accessed and modified by anybody Open-Source Home 23 Decide whether the following statements apply to open-source software or proprietary

software. Source code is not accessible, and is licensed under the exclusive legal right of the original developer Proprietary Home 24

Describe what is meant by a computer system. (2) Computer systems process data to produce information (1). Computer systems consist of input, output and storage devices, a processor and software (1). Home 25

Using an example, describe the importance of reliability in computer systems? (2) Due to our dependency on computer systems, computer system failures can potentially cause very serious problems (1). Examples where reliability is particularly important include lifesupport and aircraft systems (1). Home

26 Decide whether the following statements apply to open-source software or proprietary software. Development is a collaborative effort, and there is no guarantee of dedicated support or software updates

Open Source Home 27 Give three reasons why many new ICT systems fail to deliver what they were intended to. (3) Examples:

Little or no end-user involvement (1) Rushed implementation of the system (1) Problems due to insufficient system testing (1) Compatibility issues between systems (1) Home 28 Describe the following terms relating to

computer systems (a) Embedded system These are dedicated systems designed to carry out specific tasks within a larger system (1). Embedded systems are found in most electronic devices such as washing machines and digital cameras (1) Home

29 Describe the following terms relating to computer systems (a) Kernal (2) The kernel is the central component of most operating systems (1). It operates at the lowest level of the operating system between applications and the computer hardware (1).

Home 30 Explain the importance of professional standards in the computing industry.(3) Without standards to adhere to systems might not be compatible with each other (1). They also lift the overall quality of computer systems

produced by ensuring developers follow correct, recognised practices (1). In addition, they help to set good guidelines for dealing with legal, ethical and environmental issues in computing (1). Home 31 Describe the main difference between

proprietary and open standards.(2) Proprietary standards are controlled by a single company and are not publically available (1). Open standards are publically available and tend to be developed collaboratively rather than by a single company (1). Home

32 Give two examples of crimes that have become increasingly common due to the growing use of the internet.(2) Credit card fraud through phishing, viruses (1) Copyright infringement through software and media piracy (1) Hacking use of a computer to gain unauthorised access

to data in a system (1) Home 33 State what is meant by the following Acts of legislation: (a) Data Protection Act (2) Legislation concerning the privacy and security of personal

data (1) and how such data can be stored and processed (1) Home 34 State what is meant by the following Acts of legislation:

(a) Computer Misuse Act (2) Legislation that makes it illegal to gain unauthorised access to computers or information (1). It also aims to prevent the use of computers for any kind of malicious purpose (1). Home 35

State what is meant by the term sustainability with regard to the environment? Making the best possible use of existing natural and material resources so that there will still be enough left for future generations. Home

36 Describe two sustainable methods of disposing of old computer hardware.(2) Recycling (1) scrapping down the hardware into raw materials, and then using this material to make new products (1). Reuse (1) passing on the hardware for use by someone else (1) (e.g. could donate to poor

people in other countries, where any hardware, no matter how old, is important). Home 37 Describe two features that can be built in to modern computer systems in order to use electricity more efficiently and sparingly. (2)

Automatic sleep mode (1) to turn off most of the parts of the computer when it has been idle for a long period of time (1) Energy-efficient processors (1) using new technological developments for both faster and more efficient processing (1) Virtual Servers (1) to make more efficient use of powerful servers when they are idling (1) Home

38 State what is meant by the term digital divide and give two factors.(2) The inequality that exists between those who have ready access to computers and the Internet, and those who do not (1). Factors include differences in age, income and location (1).

Home 39 Describe the main purpose of the central processing unit (CPU).(2) Essentially the brain of the computer carries out tasks and has direct control over the hardware (1). It fetches and executes instructions stored in memory (1).

Home 40 Dave is looking to buy a new CPU. He sees one advertised with this label: Intel Core i7 Processor # of Cores 2

Clock speed 2.80 GHz Cache 4 MB State what is meant by the following terms. (i) # of Cores The number of individual processors in the CPU (in this case, two) Home

41 Dave is looking to buy a new CPU. He sees one advertised with this label: Intel Core i7 Processor # of Cores 2 Clock speed 2.80 GHz Cache

4 MB State what is meant by the following terms. (i) Clock speed Clock speed refers to the number of operations carried out per second by the processor (in this case, 2.8 billion) Home

42 Dave is looking to buy a new CPU. He sees one advertised with this label: Intel Core i7 Processor # of Cores 2 Clock speed 2.80 GHz Cache 4 MB

State what is meant by the following terms. (i) Cache Cache refers to the size of the cache memory; a small, highspeed memory used for the temporary storage of frequently or recently accessed data. Home 43

Dave sees a CPU with these labels Intel Core i7 Processor # of Cores 4 Clock speed 2.10 GHz Cache 6 MB

Intel Core i7 Processor # of Core 2 Clock speed 2.80 GHz Cache 4 MB

State which processor has a higher performance level, and why.(2) The second CPU is likely to perform better (1). Despite the slower clock speed it is quad-core and has a higher cache (1). The number of cores is the most important factor (1) as having many slower processors is better than having one faster processor. Home

44 Describe why data must be represented in binary for computers to be able to use it?(2) Computers operate using digital electrical signals which can only take two values, ON and OFF, which correspond to 1's and 0's in binary (1). Binary is by far the most simple and practical system to use in terms

of the electronics of the computer, e.g. it allows the use of logic gates, which are fundamental to computer processing (1). Home 45 Draw a logic diagram on the white board for the following Boolean operators: A not gate

Home 46 Draw a logic diagram on the white board for the following Boolean operators: A or gate

Home 47 Draw a logic diagram on the white board for the following Boolean operators: A AND gate Home

48 Complete the following truth table for a twoinput OR operator. A 0 1 0 1

B 0 1 1 0 A 0

1 0 1 A+B Home B

0 1 1 0 A+B 0 1 1

1 49 Complete the following truth table for a twoinput And operator. A 0 1 0

1 B 0 1 1 0 A

0 1 0 1 A+B Home

B 0 1 1 0 A+B 0 1

0 0 50 What do the following acronyms stand for? (i) RAM Random Access Memory

Home 51 What do the following acronyms stand for? (i) ROM Read Only Memory Home

52 Describe the likely effect of increased RAM on a computer system.(2) Increasing the amount of primary memory available to the computer means that a larger amount of data/instructions can be stored at a time this allows more programs to be run at once (1), and may speed up the computer (1) as it will spend less time

writing to virtual memory on the hard disk. Home 53 What is meant by non-volatile memory? Why is it important that ROM is non-volatile?.(2) Non-volatile memory is a type of memory that can retain the

stored information even when not powered (1). Because ROM is essential for starting up a computer before the operating system takes control, it needs to be nonvolatile so that its data is not lost when the computer is turned off (1). Home 54 Match the following memory types to the

descriptions. 1 RAM ROM Cache Virtual Non-volatile memory which stores the boot program Small and high-speed buffer-type memory located near the processor Where data/instructions are primarily held and fetched from while in use Temporary memory allocated on the hard disk Non-volatile memory which stores the boot program ROM

Small and high-speed buffer-type memory located near the processor Where data/instructions are primarily held and fetched from while in use Temporary memory allocated on the hard disk CACHE RAM VIRTUAL

Home 55 Describe the purpose and importance of each of the following memory types: (a) Cache.(2) Cache memory is used to store the most frequently used instructions or data (1). Because cache

memory is faster than RAM, the overall processing time is reduced (1) as the processor spends less time waiting for data from memory. Home 56 Describe the purpose and importance of each

of the following memory types: (a) Virtual.(2) Virtual memory is used when the RAM runs out of available space to store instructions/data currently in use (1). It is temporary memory allocated on a secondary storage device (usually on the hard drive or SSD). This allows more programs to be run at once without data loss (1). Home

57 Describe one recent development in memory technology which may impact on future computers.(2) UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) technology has been developed to replace the BIOS, which handles the starting up (or booting) of computers (1). UEFI could allow computers to start

up in a matter of a few seconds (1). Home 58 Is the following device an input or output or both.(1)

Printer? Output Home 59 Is the following device an input or output or both.(1)

Webcam? Input Home 60 Is the following device an input or output or both.(1)

Touch Screen? Both Home 61 Is the following device an input or output or both.(1)

Speaker? Output Home 62 Describe two input devices specifically designed for users with disabilities. 4

Puff-suck switch (1) users with limited physical mobility can activate a switch through the use of a breathing tube (1) Braille keyboard (1) keyboards with Braille imprinted on the keys for blind users (1) Foot mouse (1) can be used by a person who has limited or no use in their upper arms (1) Home

63 Describe two output devices specifically designed for users with disabilities. 4 Screen magnifier (1) useful for those with poor eyesight (1) Braille display / embosser (1) device which reads screen text and outputs it in Braille form (1)

Home 64 State two input devices and two output devices that might be found in the following devices: Video game console Input devices could include: gamepad/controller (1), motion sensor (1), microphone (1)

Output devices could include: VDU/screen (1), vibration (1), lights (1) Home 65 State two input devices and two output devices that might be found in the following devices:

(a) Mobile phone 2) Input devices could include: microphone (1), sensors (1), camera (1) Output devices could include: speaker (1), VDU/screen (1), vibration (1) Home 66

What is meant by secondary storage? Why is it required?.(2) Secondary storage is where data and programs are stored when not being used in the primary memory it is much larger but slower to access (1). It provides a large enough storage space for a computer to permanently store the majority of data for later use (1).

Home 67 Give a common purpose for each of the following storage devices: HardDrive For storing / backing up large amounts of data in most desktop computers

Home 68 Give a common purpose for each of the following storage devices: USB Drive Small and portable, often used to move files between different

computers Home 69 Give a common purpose for each of the following storage devices: DVD

Commonly used to store media such as films, music and games Home 70 State what the following storage mediums are magnetic, optical or solid state Hard drive:

Magnetic Home 71 State what the following storage mediums are magnetic, optical or solid state

Tape Drive: Magnetic Home 72 State what the following storage mediums are

magnetic, optical or solid state DVD: Optical Home 73

State what the following storage mediums are magnetic, optical or solid state Blu-Ray Disc: Optical Home 74

State what the following storage mediums are magnetic, optical or solid state USB Drive: Solid State Home

75 State what the following storage mediums are magnetic, optical or solid state SD Card: Solid State Home

76 Describe how data is physically written to the following storage mediums: (2) Hard Drive A read/write head magnetises tiny sections on a spinning metal platter (1). The data is stored in concentric circles called tracks (1).

Home 77 Describe how data is physically written to the following storage mediums: (2) Solid State Drive An SSD contains a large number of tiny cells which can store a voltage (1). Data is written through the use of electrical pulses (1).

Home 78 Describe how data is physically written to the following storage mediums: (2) CD/DVD A laser (1) is used to burn tiny pits and troughs (1) onto the

Describe what is meant by flash memory. surface of the CD. Home 79 Describe what is meant by flash memory.(2)

Flash memory is a type of solid-state storage (1) technology commonly used for secondary storage and removable memory (1). Home 80 A new computer-controlled system is being set up to monitor and

grow plants in a greenhouse. The system must carry out a wide range of different tasks, such as keeping the air humidity and temperature at the optimum level for growing. State one input device and one output device that will be used in the new system. Input devices include any type of sensor e.g. for temperature (1), light (1) or humidity (1) Output devices include actuator (1), sprinkler (1), heater (1) or fan

(1) Home 81 Choose a storage device which would be suitable to use for the following applications, giving a reason for your choice: Large-scale distribution of software

Optical discs i.e. CD/DVD/Blu-Ray (1) Possible reasons include: they are reliable (1) and cheap to mass produce (1) Home 82 Choose a storage device which would be

suitable to use for the following applications, giving a reason for your choice: Storing and maintaining a large collection of media files Hard drive or SSD (1) Possible reasons include: they provide large capacity storage (1) ; fast read/write speed (1) Home

83 Choose a storage device which would be suitable to use for the following applications, giving a reason for your choice: Storing school work and transferring it between home and school USB drive (1) Possible reasons include: they are reliable (1) and portable due to

their small size and weight (1) Home 84 Fill in the gaps in the sequence below to order the binary units in ascending size. Bit >

Bit > Nibble > Byte > Kilobyte >

> Byte > Kilobyte > Home

> Gigabyte > Megabye > Gigabyte > terabyte 85

Convert the following binary number to Denary: 101111 47 Home 86

Convert the following binary number to Denary: 1000010 66 Home 87

Convert the following binary number to Denary: 110111 55 Home 88

How many... (a) bits are there in a byte? 8 Home 89

How many... (a) Nibbles are there in a byte? 2 Home 90

How many... (a) Bytes are there in a kilobyte? 1000/1024 Home 91

Describe why the hexadecimal number representation is often used in computing (for example, for examining registry values)? (2) Hexadecimal is shorter and simpler for humans to read than binary (1), and can easily be converted into binary when necessary (1). [2] Note that computers don't actually work in hexadecimal! Binary must always be used.

Home 92 Describe a problem that can arise when adding two 8-bit binary integers to get an 8-bit answer(2) Overflow error (1) if two large numbers are added together then the answer may require an

additional ninth bit rather than just eight (1). Home 93 Describe what is meant by a character set?(2) A defined list of characters recognised by computer hardware and

software (1). Each character is represented by a binary number (1). Home 94 State what the acronym ASCII stands for.2)

American Standard Code of Information Interchange Home 95 How many different characters can the ASCII set represent? The standard ASCII table defines 128 character codes

Home 96 How many bits does each ASCII character use? 7 bits

Home 97 Describe the limitation of using ASCII for global communication, and suggest a different character set that might be more suitable.(3) ASCII can only represent 128 characters, which is only enough for

the English alphabet (1). An alternative with a much larger character set can represent many more characters and symbols from other alphabets (1). For example Unicode (1). Home 98 Describe how a bitmap image can be stored in

binary in: (i) Two-level black and white A series of bits in order can be used (1), with each bit representing either a white or black pixel (1). Home 99

Describe how a bitmap image can be stored in binary in: (i) Colour Each pixel is represented by one or more bytes (1), with the bytes containing RGB colour information (1). Home 100

How can a bitmap image store greater colour depth? By assigning more bits/bytes to each pixel Home 101

Describe what is meant by the term resolution? Resolution defines how detailed a digital image is (1). A higher resolution image contains a larger concentration/number of individual pixels (1). Home 102

How can a bitmap image store greater colour depth? By assigning more bits/bytes to each pixel Home 103

Give one problem that could arise when storing/processing very high resolution digital images. For example, increased file size and therefore more processing power required per image Home 104

Explain the need for digital image files to include metadata.(3) Metadata is information about the image data (1) that allows the computer to recreate the image from the binary data in the file (1). As a minimum, this must contain the image dimensions and colour depth (1). Home

105 Describe what is meant by the following terms relating to digital sound: (i) Sample Rate The number of times the sound is sampled per second (1), measured in Hz (1)

Home 106 Describe what is meant by the following terms relating to digital sound: (i) Bit Rate The space available for each sample (1), measured in kbits/s (1)

Home 107 Explain why sound quality over a telephone network is much lower than from a music CD. (2) Telephones use a much lower sample rate approximately 8 KHz compared to the 44 KHz used for

CD audio recording (1). A rate of 8 KHz is easily enough to understand voices, but would be poor for listening to music (1). The reason for using the lower sample rate for telephones is that it saves bandwidth (1). Home 108

State what is meant by a database? A persistent, organised store of data. Home 109 Describe the difference between flat-file and

relational databases. A flat-file database only contains one table (1), while a relational database contains multiple tables that are linked to each other (1). Home 110

Give two advantages of using relational databases instead of flat-file databases. Examples (2 mark max): Avoids data duplication (1) Avoids inconsistent records (1) Easier to change data and their formats (1) Data can be added, edited and deleted easily (1) Easier to maintain security (1)

Home 111 Describe what is meant by DBMS? The Database Management System (1) provides an interface for end users to interact with the database itself (1).

Home 112 A DBMS allows the separation of applications from the data. Why this is important. To prevent applications from conflicting with each other and compromising the integrity of the

database (1). If there is a need to change the data structure or processing, it can be done without making big changes throughout the database (1). Home 113 Match the database-related terms to their

meanings: Table Form Report Query

User interface tool which allows a user to enter or change data in a table A set of data elements organised in columns and rows The primary method of retrieving information from the database a request for information A tool designed to help output information from the database Home

Form Table Query Report 114 Explain the relationship between entities and

tables An entity is any subject or thing of importance about which data is captured, such a person or group of people (1). Each entity should be given a corresponding table in the database (1). Home 115

A sports centre keeps a database of its members. Here is an excerpt of one of the tables used: MemberID FirstName LastName

Postcode Telephone 12334 Simon

Able NN12 3GH 01663 563883 12800 Mary

Andrews HB3 2YT 01435 675456 11631

Adam Barnsley GF14 7HG 01663 507106 12922

Martha Chan HB4 3GB 01435 876135

State which field should be chosen as the primary key in the above table? MemberID Home 116 Explain the difference between a primary key and a foreign key. The primary key field in a table uniquely identifies each record in

that table (1). The foreign key field represents the value of primary keys in a different table (1). Home 117 A sports centre keeps a database of its

members. Here is an excerpt of one of the tables used: MemberID FirstName LastName Postcode

Telephone 12334 Simon Able

NN12 3GH 01663 563883 12800 Mary Andrews

HB3 2YT 01435 675456 11631 Adam

Barnsley GF14 7HG 01663 507106 12922 Martha

Chan HB4 3GB 01435 876135 State the number of records present in the excerpt above?

4 Home 118 Give two advantages to the sports centre of using an electronic database instead of a manual (paper-based) system. Examples (2 mark max):

Faster searching and retrieval of data (1) Greater flexibility (1) More consistent (1) Easier to collate data (1) Home 119

State what is meant by the following terms? (i) Data Integrity Is when data reflects reality what is expected. Home 120 State what is meant by the following terms?

(i)Validation The process of checking data as it is entered to ensure that it is reasonable. Home 121 State what is meant by the following terms?

(i)Verification 1 The process of checking that data is true or correct. Home 122 Using an example, describe the following methods of data validation.

Presence check To check that all important information has been included (1). For example, checking that an online goods over has the customers delivery address (1). Home 123

Using an example, describe the following methods of data validation. Range check To check that entered data is within the correct value range (1). For example, checking that examination marks for a class of students aren't larger than the maximum mark possible (1). Home

124 Using an example, describe the following methods of data validation. (i) Format check To check that entered data is in the correct format/style (1). For example that data is in the format dd/mm/yyyy (1).

Home 125 State what is meant by a network. A group of interconnected computers and devices. Home

126 Give two advantages of connecting computers in a local area network. Advantages examples (2 mark max): Allow sharing of data and systems / aids collaborative working (1) Allow sharing of devices such as printers, scanners and external drives (1)

They make it easier to control many systems at once e.g. to when installing/configuring software (1) Home 127 Give two disadvantages of connecting computers in a local area network.

Disadvantages examples (2 mark max): Any technical issues can affect multiple users, instead of being isolated to a single system (1) LANs can be expensive to implement particularly large/complex networks (1) Expertise is needed to set up and maintain and networks (1) Can help unauthorised people to gain access to data (1) Home

128 There are many possible ways in which a network can be constructed, formally known as topologies. Match the following topologies to the descriptions Ring Star

Bus Individual computers connect to one shared communications cable Bus Computers connect to a central connection point called a hub

Star Messages travel in one direction through a chain of computers Ring Home

129 On the white board draw a diagram of each topology, Bus, Ring, Star Bus Star

Ring Home 130 Give one advantage of a bus network Requires the least amount of cables, making setup relatively

cheap and simple (1) Easy to add new nodes without disruption (1) Home 131 Give one disadvantage of a bus network

If there is a fault in the backbone, the whole network will go down (1) Data for all computers is sent along a single route, meaning that the network can become unresponsive/unstable if a lot of data is being sent (1) In the event of a network problem it may be difficult to isolate the cause (1) Home

132 Give one disadvantage of a ring network If one node or line fails then data cannot be transmitted between the rest of the nodes (1) The whole network is disrupted every time a new node is added (1)

Home 133 Give one advantage of a ring network As the data travels in one direction the transmission of data is not held up (1) There is no dependence/need of a central computer (1)

Home 134 Give one disadvantage of a ring network If one node or line fails then data cannot be transmitted between the rest of the notes (1)

The whole network is disrupted every time a new node is added (1) Home 135 Give one disadvantage of a star network

Requires and is dependent upon a central computer (1) Requires the most amount of cables, making setup relatively expensive (1) Home 136 Describe what is meant by a client-server

network. Common network model where one or more computers are designated as servers (1). These provide services to the rest of the computers on the network, called clients (1). Home 137

Describe the role of each computer in a peer-topeer (P2P) network. Each computer in the network is equal and can act as a client or server for the other computers (1), sharing services and resources without the need for a central server (1). Home 138

What does WAN stand for? Wide Area Network Home 139

What is largest and most well-known type of WAN? The Internet Home 140 State what is meant by the following terms

MAC ADDRESS A unique number assigned to every physical interface (e.g. network card) connected to a network Home 141 State what is meant by the following terms

Packet A unit of formatted data sent across a network Home 142 State what is meant by the following terms Protocol

A definition of rules and conventions that devices should follow to communicate Home 143 Explain the difference between backing up and archiving of data.

Backups involve storing parts of a set of data that have changed for disaster recovery reasons i.e. is short -term storage (1), whereas archiving is keeping a complete set of data for historical reasons i.e. long-term data storage (1). When files are backed up, the original data still remains on the system (1), whereas with archiving, once a copy has been made, the original files are removed from the system (1). Home

144 A business would like to connect their computers into a star network. (a) Describe two hardware devices that would be needed for this. Each computer must be equipped with a NIC (network interface card) (1) in order to connect to the network (1)

A central hub/switch (1) will be needed to direct signals to and from the necessary areas of the network (1) Home 145 Explain why encryption might be used on the network.

Encryption means scrambling the message so that it cannot be understood except by someone who has the correct key to decrypt the message (1). This is particularly important if the business uses sensitive data (e.g. customers or financial) that they do not want to be intercepted (1). Home

146 Other than encryption describe two other security measures that could be implemented on a new network. User access levels (1) the access to certain data can be limited to certain users, for example employee information (1). Password-protected accounts (1) secure passwords should be used for only allowing authorised users to log on to the network

(1). Home 147 State what is meant by the internet? A worldwide collection of connected computer networks; short

for the interconnected network Home 148 Describe the importance of the following network device. Modem

Modem converts between digital and analogue signals (1). Must be used so that computers (digital) can connect to the Internet through telephone lines (analogue) (1). Home 149

Describe the importance of the following network device. Router Router forwards data packets to the appropriate parts of the network (1) and allows the Internet connection to be shared by multiple devices (1). Home

150 Describe, using an example, what is meant by an IP address. An IP address is a number assigned to every computer on a TCP/IP network for identification purposes (1). An example of an IP address is 192.168.0.05 (1) (four numbers, separated by dots).

Home 151 Explain the role of DNS servers in accessing resources on the Internet. DNS servers match IP addresses to host names (1). They allow users to type in a simple text-based address (such as www.google.com) and match this to the appropriate IP (1) (such

as 74.125.224.72). Home 152 Describe what is meant by HTML. HyperText Markup Language (1) is a text-based standard for

creating web pages (1). Home 153 State a common file standard associated with the Internet for the following: (i) Animated images

GIF MP3 (ii) Audio files (iii) Cross-platform documents Home PDF

154 State the type of media stored in MPEG files. Video Home 155

State the most common file format used for storing photos and other digital images? JPEG Home 156

Using an example, describe one advantage of compressing files prior to sending them via the Internet? Compressed files have a lower file size than the original this means that they can be sent faster over a network (1). Commonly used compressed formats are RAR and ZIP (1). Home

157 Describe the difference in the way that lossy and lossless compression techniques work. Lossy compression involves discarding some of the image detail in order to reduce the image size (1), whereas lossless stores the information about the file so that it can be recreated later (1).

Home 158 State what is meant by the following terms. (a) Algorithm Series of steps or instructions that are followed in order to solve a problem

Home 159 State what is meant by the following terms. (a) Pseudocode Describes an algorithm using structured English, similar to real programming code

Home 160 Label the diagram to point out the use of: (1) Sequence (2) Selection (3) Iteration Home

161 State the final values of N, M and F when the number 6 is entered into the program. N M F N = 6 (1) M = 6 (1) F = 720 (1)

Home 162 State what is meant by the following error types: (i) Syntax Error that arises from incorrect spelling or grammar in the code,

not consistent with the programming language Home 163 State what is meant by the following error types: (i) Logical

Error that arises from incorrect algorithm design Home 164 State what is meant by the following terms. (a) Pseudocode Describes an algorithm using structured English, similar to real

programming code Home 165 State what is meant by the following terms. (a) Pseudocode Describes an algorithm using structured English, similar to real

programming code Home 166 The algorithm below is designed to calculate the exact value of two numbers multiplied together. Describe the error that is present in

declare x As Integer the program. declare y As Integer declare answer As Integer x = 9.5 y=4 answer = x * y print answer

As the variable answer is the incorrect data type integer (1), the program cannot output the exact value of the multiplication (1). Home 167 The algorithm below is designed to calculate the exact value of two numbers multiplied together. State the type of error in this code

declare x As Integer declare y As Integer declare answer As Integer x = 9.5 y=4 answer = x * y print answer This is a logic error (1) as it is a flaw in the algorithm design.

Home 168 The algorithm below is designed to calculate the exact value of two numbers multiplied together. Describe how the code could be changed to prevent this error? declare x As Integer

declare y As Integer declare answer As Integer x = 9.5 y=4 answer = x * y print answer Change the data type of answer to something more suitable (1), for example single, double, float, real (1).

Home 169 Describe three types of test data that should be used in a test plan. Valid/Normal (1) data that is within range, as expected by the program (1) Invalid (1) data outside of the required range, which should be rejected by the program (1)

Extreme/boundary (1) data that is at the limits of what is valid or invalid (1) Erroneous (1) data that is in the wrong format and should be rejected by the program (1) Home 170 Describe two differences between high-level

programming languages and machine code. Programs written in the machine code can be directly executed by the CPU (1). High-level language programs must be translated into machine language before they can be executed (1). Machine code is encoded in binary (1) whereas high level languages use syntax similar to human language (1). Machine code is machine dependant (1) while high level languages are not (1). Home

171 State the term used for software which converts one programming language to another? Translator Home

172 State the purpose of the following development tool: (i) Assembler Utility which converts low-level assembly code into machine code. Home

173 State the purpose of the following development tool: (i) Compiler Utility which coverts high-level code into low-level code, whole blocks of code at a time Home

174 State the purpose of the following development tool: (i) Interpreter Utility which coverts high-level code into low-level code, one line at a time

Home 175 Describe the purpose of an IDE? Integrated development environment (1); software that provides comprehensive facilities to help programmers develop software (1).

Home 176 Describe three common tools and facilities that are available in most IDEs. Code editor (1) provides an area for writing and editing programming code (1) Error diagnostics (1) gives warnings of errors or potential issues with code (1)

Run-time environment (1) software to support the execution of programs (1) Translators (1) compiles or interprets the source code into machine code (1) Auto-documentation (1) documents the use of as variables, functions/subroutines, and comments to assist with program maintenance (1). Home 177

State what is meant by each of the following terms: (i) Sequence, Selection, Iteration Sequence: Construct where a list of instructions is carried out in order, one after the other. Selection: Construct where an option of statements is provided and a condition is used to decide which option is chosen. Iteration: Construct where a group of statements is executed repeatedly until a

condition is met. Home 178 Below is a simple algorithm in pseudocode. State which of the three control structures is in use here.

If studentmark >= 50 print passed Else if studentmark < 50 print failed End if Selection Home

179 A simple program is being written which calculates the area of circles. It allows the user to input a value for a radius, and then outputs the corresponding area (the area of a circle is multiplied by the square of the radius). State one variable and one constant that will be used in the program.

Variables would be used for the entered radius (1) and the calculated area (1). A constant would be used for the mathematical value (1). Home 180 A new website is being developed to provide information and statistics for a kids rugby league.

State the most appropriate data type for each of the following variables: TeamName (the name of the team) String LastUpdate (when the league table was last updated)

PlayToday (whether the team is playing today) AvgPts (the average points per game scored by the team) GamesWon (the number of games a team has won)

Home Date/Time or Text Boolean Float/real Integer 181

Describe the need to give variables the correct data types? Support your answer with a suitable example. Using correct data types should help to avoid errors (1).

For example, if GamesWon incorrectly stored numbers using the string type, and then attempted to carry out mathematical operations on this data, it would prove impossible because text data cannot be manipulated in this way (1). Home 182

Give two advantages of using Boolean data types where necessary. Booleans allow for faster data entry (1) and take up less storage space (1). They also greatly reduce the chance of errors being made (1). Home 183

Describe what is meant by an array? An array is data structure that stores a collection of individual values that are of the same data type (1). It is more efficient for a program to access and process the information in an array, than it is to deal with many separate variables (1). Home

184 The system uses an array called TeamName. The array contains names of every team in the league. TeamName[0] Bulldogs

TeamName[1] Cheatahs The value of TeamName[1] is Cheatahs TeamName[2]

Dragons The value of TeamName[9] is Tigers TeamName[3]

Eagles The value of TeamName[5] is Hawks TeamName[4] Falcons

TeamName[5] Hawks TeamName[6] Pythons

TeamName[7] Rhinos TeamName[8] Sharks TeamName[9]

Tigers Home 185 Home

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JPG PDF JPG MPEG Home 200 Home

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