Creation Apologetics Dr. Heinz Lycklama [email protected] www.osta.com/messages Frog + time (instantaneous) -> Prince = Fairy Tale Frog + time (300 million yrs.) -> Prince = Science Dr. Gish, ICR What I see convinces me God exists. What I cannot see, confirms it. Albert Einstein Stumbling Blocks in Coming to Faith in Christ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lack of intellectual knowledge of God

Other Christians their perceived hypocrisy Sin: accepting Christ would require turning away from sin If God is all-loving and all-powerful, why is there so much pain, suffering, and evil? Perceived conflict between Science and the Bible, e.g. Creation v. Evolution No answers from the Church to the hard questions @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 2 The Statistics! According to pollster George Barna (in the US): Only 9% of born again teenagers believe that absolute truth even exists

At least 60% of the children from evangelical homes are estimated to leave the church once they leave home Reasons: No answers from the Church for the hard questions asked by our youth Indoctrination of our youth in secularism and evolutionism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 3 The Solution: Creation Apologetics Teach The Truth in the Bible from the very first verse!

Be ready to answer the hard questions @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 4 Creation Apologetics 1. 2. 3. What Does the Bible Say About Creation? What Do Jesus And The Apostles Say About Creation? What Does Science Say About Creation? 4. 5. The Creation and Evolution Models of Origins Which Model Best Fits The Scientific Evidence?

[Challenges to Evolutionism] Does It Matter What We Believe About Creation? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 5 1. What Does The Bible Say About Creation? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 6 Creation According to the Bible Three major worldwide events have produced the world as we know it today: 1.

2. 3. Six days of special creation and formation of all things, the completion and permanence of which are now manifest in the Law of Conservation of Energy (the First Law of Thermodynamics): Gen. 2:1, were finished. The rebellion of man and resultant curse of God on all mans dominion, formalized in the Law of Increasing Entropy [disorder] (the Second Law of Thermodynamics) Worldwide flood in the days of Noah, leaving the world largely under the domain of natural @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 7 Creation of Distinct Kinds

Gen. 1: 11(1), 12(2), 21(2), 24(2), 25(3) Ten major categories of organic life created after its kind Plant kingdom - grass, herbs, fruit trees Animal kingdom - sea monsters, other marine animals, birds, beasts, cattle, crawling animals Man kind One kind cannot transform itself into another kind

Definite and distinct categories There is variation within a kind @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 8 Created in Six Days Gen. 2:1, Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Ex. 20:11, For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Ex. 31:17, for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day

@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 9 Fall and Curse and The Laws of Thermodynamics Universal scientific laws Formally recognized ~ 100 years ago Scientists are unable to explain why they work First Law of Thermodynamics

Second Law of Thermodynamics Conservation of mass and energy Increasing entropy (disorder) These two laws are implicitly explained/revealed in the Bible @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 10 OT References to Creation

Ex. 31:17 (Moses) It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel forever, for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth - six-day literal creation Josh. 24:2-4 (Joshua) your fathers, including Terah, the father of Abraham and the father of Nahor, - accepts Gen. 11 account of Abrahams ancestors II Kings 19:15 (Hezekiah) You have made heaven and earth. - speaks of creation 1 Chron. 1:1-28 Adam, Seth, Enoch, - repeats genealogies of Gen. 5, 10, 11 Neh. 9:6 (Nehemiah) You have made heaven, the earth and everything on it, the seas and all that is in them, refers to creation @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 11 2. What Do Jesus and the Apostles Say About Creation? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 12

Christ Refers to Gen. 1-11 Matt. 19:4-5 Have you not read that He who made them at the beginning made them male and female, and said for this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife and the two shall become one flesh. Doctrine of marriage refers to first two chapters of Genesis, Gen. 1:27 and Gen. 2:24 Mark 10:6 But from the beginning of the creation, God made them male and female Mark 13:19 - beginning @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama of creation

13 Jesus Is The Creator John 1:3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. Col. 1:16,17 All things were created through Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist. Eph. 3:9 hidden in God who created all things through Jesus Christ. Heb. 1:1-3 through whom also He made the worlds. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

14 NT References to Gen. 1-11 Every NT writer refers to the early chapters of Genesis Jesus Christ referred to each of the first seven chapters of Genesis Almost all NT books have references to Genesis 1-11 Every chapter of Genesis 1-11 except chapter 8 is referred to somewhere in NT Every NT writer accepted these early chapters as historically accurate @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

15 Removing Genesis 1-11 Removes true history Removes the foundation from all future history Rejects the teachings of Peter, Paul, other Biblical writers, Christ Himself Eventually leads to apostasy @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 16 Conclusion

Creation is an essential truth spoken of in the Bible Col. 2:8 See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 17 3. What Does Science Say About Creation? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 18 Overview

Origins Models Creation and Evolution Looking at the Evidence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Origin of matter, energy and natural law Classification of biological organisms Mutations and natural selection Origin of man Origin of life (probability) The fossil record Founders of Scientific Disciplines Conclusions

@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 19 Some Common Misconceptions Skeptics and unbelievers think: Evolution is Science The Bible is an antiquated religious book, filled with scientific fallacies and mistakes reflecting the nave cosmology of the primitive tribes of the Near East. Even some professing Christians think: The Bible is a book of true religion dealing solely with spiritual subjects and that, where it seems to touch on matters of science and history, it must be interpreted spiritually or allegorically,

rather than literally. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Creation is Religion 20 Should We Change The Bible To Agree With Science? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 21 Science Operational Science

Postulate theory -> make observations -> prove/falsify theory Using the Scientific Method Origins Science Were you there at the beginning? Model of Creation Model of Evolution Which model fits the observed facts best? Forensic science @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 22 Scientific Methodology

Make observations Develop a hypothesis or theory that explains the observations Conduct experiments to test accuracy and predictions made by the theory Draw conclusions Repeat experiments to verify results and eliminate sources of inaccuracy Report results so others can repeat the experiment(s) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 23 Origins - Evolution or Creation?

Science is the search for truth Hypothesis, theory, model, law, or fact? Fact proven to be true Law no known exception Theory testable, falsifiable, based on empirical findings Hypothesis provisionally explains some fact Model simplified representation of reality Which is Evolution? Creation?

A model lets see why @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 24 Models of Origins We can neither observe nor repeat origins Origins theories cannot be tested or proven We have two models (not theories) of origins Creation and Evolution Models can be compared as to their respective capacities for correlating observable data Evolutionists regard evolution as a proven fact.

They believe that Evolutionism is science and that creationism is religion Evolutionists are unable to prove Evolution Thousands of scientists believe in Creation @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 25 Creation Model Involves a process of special creation in the beginning All the basic laws and categories of nature brought into existence by special creative

processes which are no longer in operation today Distinct kinds exist today as they have existed in the past Processes of creation replaced by processes of conservation @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 26 Evolution Model Explains origin, development and meaning of all things in terms of natural laws and processes which operate today as they have in the past No extraneous processes requiring an external agent (i.e. a Creator) are permitted The universe in all respects evolves itself into

higher levels of order (particles to people), elements -> complex chemicals -> simple living systems -> complex life -> man @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 27 More on Origins Models Creation cannot be proved: Not happening now, so far as can be observed The scientific method cannot repeat Creation Cannot ascertain whether Creation took place (except through divine revelation)

Evolution cannot be proved: Operates too slowly to be measurable, if it is taking place The scientific method cannot be used to measure it Small variations in organisms, observed today, are not relevant (cant be used to distinguish between creation and evolution) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 28 Which Model Best Fits The Facts? Creation and Evolution are the only two models of origins

Both models should be considered as equal alternatives and evaluated objectively in terms of their relative abilities to correlate and explain scientific data The model that incorporates the most data and has the smallest number of unresolved issues is the most likely to be true @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 29 Looking At The Scientific Evidence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Origin of matter, energy and natural law Classification of biological organisms Mutations and Natural Selection Origin of man

Origin of life probability The fossil record @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 30 1. Origin of Matter, Energy & Natural Law Evolution model predicts: Matter, energy and laws may still be evolving May have evolved in the past since there is no external agent to bring evolution to a stop Systems can evolve to higher levels of complexity

Creation model predicts: Basic laws would not now be changing Fundamental nature of matter and energy would not now be changing Finished in the past, conserved in the present Matter should go from order to disorder @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 31 The Laws of Nature Everything in the universe is bound by laws

Physics, chemistry, mathematics, life, logic Universal constants, planetary motion Laws of nature are uniform throughout the universe Explain the logical orderly state of the universe Consequences of laws of nature Laws require a law-giver Laws of nature are consistent with creation Laws of nature make science possible! ordinances of heaven and earth Jer. 33:25 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 32 Laws of Logic

Transcendent truths Depended on by the laws of nature Law of non-contradiction Make reasoning possible Cannot have both A and not A at the same time and in the same relationship God cannot contradict Himself, Num. 23:19 God is logical Reflect Gods nature

Man, created in Gods image, instinctively knows the laws of logic Secularist cannot account for these laws @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 33 More On The Natural Laws The first two laws of thermodynamics are constant: Other constant laws include:

The total energy of any system remains the same The entropy of a system increases over time Law of gravity Conservation of momentum Conservation of electric charge Did natural laws evolve? There is no evidence of this Laws of nature are uniform throughout the cosmos @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 34 2. Classification of Biological Organisms The evolution model predicts:

A continuum of all forms of life No classification system would work The creation model predicts: An array of clear, but distinct organisms similar structures for similar functions, e.g. eyes different structures for different functions, e.g. gills for fish, lungs for man Science of taxonomy

distinct kinds/species @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 35 The Science of Taxonomy The science of taxonomy is a problem for evolution The classification system introduced by Carolus Linnaeus applies to plants/animals in todays world as well as to extinct plants and animals A continuum of life forms does not exist Credible Intermediates have not been observed and/

or identified in the fossils The classification system introduced by Linnaeus still works today @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 36 Quoting an Evolutionist The anti-creationist, Niles Eldredge, wrote in 1985: And though a few of these eighteenth-century systematists had vaguely evolutionary notions, nearly all were devoutly and orthodoxly religious. They saw the order in their material, the grand pattern of similarity running through the entire organic realm, as evidence of Gods plan of creation. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

37 Historical Classification @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 38 Classification Observations What we do see is: Variations within species, e.g. varieties of cats, dogs, cows, horses, mankind No new kinds produced Some species become extinct

Like begets like Cambrian fossils largely reflect todays classification system Chalk up another one for the Creation Model! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 39 3. Mutations & Natural Selection Evolution model predicts: Small variations between members of a species would confer differing degrees of advantage or

disadvantage in the struggle for existence Those with significant advantages would be favored New and higher types of organisms would emerge A mutation (structural change in a gene) is the source of genetic variation Mutations are primarily beneficial @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 40 Mutations & Natural Selection - 2 Creation model predicts: Variation and natural selection work to assure genetic integrity and to enable the organism to survive in nature Characteristics can be adjusted, within

limits, to changes in the environment Mutations are primarily harmful @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 41 Change and Variation What is the more logical inference from our observations? 1. 2. Unlimited change from one kind to another? (Evolution) Limited variation within kinds? (Creation) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

42 Changes Over the Years? Darwin predicted that fossils would show changes in fossil record over the years 25-million-year-old termite fossils in amber Identical to termites living today It has become abundantly clear that the fossil record will not confirm this part of Darwins predictions.

Niles Eldredge, Paleontologist @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 43 What We See Happening Today Variations within a kind, e.g. peppered moth evolving to darker color as tree trunks grew darker with pollutants during industrial revolution Adaptation to the environment for survival Mutations are harmful to the organism Mutations are random and not directed Mutations are rare in occurrence Mutations almost always generate misfits which

soon die out @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 44 Origin of Species Never Observed All of Darwins evidences turn out to be descriptions of creative adaptation, not origin According to Niles Eldridge (1986): Darwin, it is now become commonplace to acknowledge, never really addressed the origin of species in his book of that title. Darwin never really cited the origin of a new species by natural selection

The British evolutionist Colin Patterson noted: No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of natural selection. No one has ever gotten near it and most of the current argument in neo-Darwinism is about this question. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 45 On Mutations & Natural Selection The philosopher Janus Koestler noted that: The public continues to believe that Darwin provided all the relevant answers by the magic formula of random mutations plus natural

selection - quite unaware of the fact that random mutations turned out to be irrelevant and natural selections a tautology. Mutations turn out to be rare events, and most of those are bad They do not lead to improvements in the species, as evolution predicts @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 46 4. The Origin of Man Evolution model predicts:

Molecules -> man Man evolved from an ape-like ancestor Creation model predicts: Mans appearance has remained largely the same @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 47 Famous Hominid Fossils Neanderthal Man 1856

Java Man 1891 Piltdown Man 1908 Nebraska Man 1922 Ramapithecus 1930 Lucy - 1974 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 48 Neanderthal Man Fossil fragments first found in France 1856 Neanderthal Mans Site in Krapina, 1899-1999

Another almost complete skeleton found in 1908 Skull cap and some limb bones Diagnosed as human with deformed vertebrae Reconstructed by Marcelle Boule to look ape-like Based on pre-conceived evolutionary notions Faulty reconstruction recognized in 1957 Neanderthal is now known to be fully human with a bone deformity School textbooks still portray as mans ancestor @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 49

Lucy Discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson Evidence: 40% complete skeleton Dated at 3.5 million years old Arm/leg ratio of 83.9 % Hip/pelvis walked upright Knee joint walked upright Observations:

Fingers long and curved (for climbing) Shoulder blade like gorilla Brain size of chimpanzee @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 50 Lucy - Reconstructed Digging deeper, we find that:

Leg bone broken in two places and one end was crushed -> this invalidates the ratio Hip/pelvis was incomplete, and thus reshaped to make it look as if it walked upright Knee joint was found over one mile away and 200 feet deeper in strata from rest of bones Fossil remains of two different creatures fitted to form a make-believe creature @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 51 Summary of Hominid Fossils

Neanderthal Man accepted as homo sapiens Java Man artificial construct Piltdown Man proven to be a hoax Nebraska Man an extinct pig Ramapithecus an orangutan Lucy make-believe creature NO credible ape-like -> human fossil found! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 52 5. Origin of Life - Probability What is the probability that an explosion in a junk yard would create a car? What is the probability of creating a Boeing airplane from such an explosion?

What is the probability that 200 monkeys pawing away at a typewriter could write a Shakespearean play? What is the probability of a protein coming into being by chance? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 53 Proteins and Amino Acids Amino acids Proteins - the building blocks of life

A few thousand types Right- and left-handed Large organic molecule Contain 100s to a few 1000 amino acids Specified long sequences of amino acids Contain 20 different left-handed amino acids Crucial protein fact Absence, addition, or replacement of a single amino acid in the structure of a protein causes protein to be useless @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 54 Probability of Forming one Protein Take 200 parts and line them up in a specific order

200! ways of aligning these parts = 10**375 Try a new alignment 1 billion times a second Assuming 20 billion years of time, we have 20 * 10**18 seconds The probability of finding the right alignment is practically zero, i.e. 1 in 10**356 Anything less than 1 in 10**50 is regarded as zero probability Living organisms contain many more than 200 parts Human being contains 60+ trillion cells Only 10**80 infinitesimal particles in the whole universe

@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 55 How Simple Can Life Be? Cell structure unknown by Darwin Smallest bacteria 482 genes 600 types of proteins 600,000 DNA base pairs Probability of chance formation is zero!

Human genome 3,000,000,000 base pairs @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 56 Spontaneous Formation of Life? The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it. It is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelligence. Wickramasinghe, professor of applied mathematics and astronomy, UK @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 57

6. The Fossil Record The theory of evolution is based on two major suppositions: Mutations and natural selection supposedly provided the mechanism The fossil record allegedly proved the fact of evolution Fossils should prove evolution since the fossil record has long been considered as the main evidence for evolution The creation model predicts that organisms preserved as fossils will correspond to the same classification system as applicable to present-day

plants and animals @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 58 Fossil Predictions Evolution model predicts: Many preliminary forms Many transitional forms Randomly distributed gaps between present kinds and transitional forms Basic taxonomic categories should have been evolving Creation model predicts:

No preliminary forms No transitional forms Clear gaps between types Same taxonomic categories as at present @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 59 Fossil Record Quotes Darwin admitted in 1859: Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links?

Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain. Paul Moody wrote in a standard textbook: So far as we can judge from the geologic record, large changes seem usually to have arisen suddenly. ... fossil forms, intermediate between large subdivisions of classification, such as orders and classes, are seldom [read never] found. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 60 Expected Transitional Forms Evolutionists say we should find transitional forms:

Single cell to multi-cell creatures Invertebrate to vertebrate Fish to reptile Reptile to bird Ape-like to man To date no true transitional fossil forms have been discovered @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 61 Fully Formed It is considered likely that all the animal phyla became distinct before or during the Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed, without intermediates connecting one

phylum to another. Futuyma, Douglas J. 1986. Evolutionary biology. 2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 325 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 62 The Fossil Record Summarized Missing links are still missing Different types of living fossils found Sudden appearance of fully formed fossils in the Cambrian Explosion The same kinds still appear today

Some species are now extinct No new kinds evolved Supports the Creation Model! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 63 Conclusions Laws of science consistent with Creationism Signs of intelligence in the universe The probability of life from non-life is zero Abrupt appearance of fully-formed animals The missing links are still missing

Man did not evolve from ape-like creatures Catastrophism explains the geologic column There is NO credible evidence for evolution! Science supports Creationism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 64 Scientific Disciplines Established by Bible-Believing Scientists Discipline Astronomy Scientist Johann Kepler (15711630) Bacteriology Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Chemistry Robert Boyle (1627-1691) Computer Charles Babbage (1792Science 1871) Dynamics

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Electrodynami Clerk Maxwell (183165 cs 1879) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Scientific Disciplines Established by Bible-Believing Scientists - 2 Discipline Electromagneti cs Natural History Oceanography Scientist Michael Faraday (17911867) John Ray (1627-1705) Matthew Maury (18061873) Taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus (17071778) Thermodynami Lord Kelvin (1824-1907) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama cs

66 4. Challenges To Evolutionism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 67 Debunking The Myths in the Creation/Evolution Debate 1. The myth that the Neo-Darwinian Macroevolution belief systemas heavily popularized by todays self-appointed science experts, the popular media, academia, and certain government agenciesfinds overwhelming or even merely unequivocal support in the data of empirical science 2. The myth that the alternativebiblical creation somehow fails to find any compelling, corroborative support in the same data Source: www.trueorigin.org

@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 68 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 69 Challenges to Evolutionism 1. Evolution has never been observed 2. Evolution violates the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 3. There are NO credible transitional fossils 4. Life did not originate from non-life by random chance 5. Evolution is only a theory it has not been proved @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 70 1. Macro-Evolution NOT Observed

What is macro-evolution? Molecules-to-man Common descent Emergence of new advanced features via mutations and natural selection Simple to complex living organism with increase of genetic information Macro-Evolution has not been, and is not being, observed Goo-to-you (macro) evolution requires an increase in information @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

71 Micro-Evolution IS Observed What is micro-evolution? Examples of micro-evolution: Genetic variation, e.g (dis)appearance of existing/potential genetic traits through recombination of existing genetic code Adaptive variations arising from existing genetic

potential already in populations existing pool Darwins finches Industrial melanism in peppered moths Insects developing resistance to pesticides All observed change involves sorting and loss of genetic information @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 72 Dobzhanskys Fruit Flies Fruit flies experiment in the lab Results

Radiation-induced mutation of fruit flies Involves deliberate action, not natural Fruit flies with extra wings, no wings, huge wings, tiny wings Changes detrimental to survival No advantages over other fruit flies Still fruit flies! No progressive beneficial changes from simple to complex No increase in quantity/quality of genetic info @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 73 Quote by Lewin (Evolutionist) The central question of the Chicago conference

was whether the mechanisms underlying microevolution can be extrapolated to explain the phenomena of macroevolution. At the risk of doing violence to the positions of some of the people at the meeting, the answer can be given as a clear No. Reported by Roger Lewin, Evolutionary theory under fire, Science, vol. 210 (4472), 21 November 1980, p. 883] @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 74 2. Evolution & 2nd Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Evolution requires Increasing entropy (unavailable energy) Order -> disorder (systems left to themselves) Disorder -> order Simple -> complex What do we observe in nature? Order -> disorder (deterioration) Less available energy over time Increased randomness over time @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 75

Quote by Isaac Asimov Another way of stating the second law then is: The universe is constantly getting more disorderly! Viewed that way, we can see the second law all about us. We have to work hard to straighten a room, but left to itself it becomes a mess again very quickly and very easily. Even if we never enter it, it becomes dusty and musty. How difficult to maintain houses, and machinery, and our bodies in perfect working order: how easy to let them deteriorate. In fact, all we have to do is nothing, and everything deteriorates, collapses, breaks down, wears out, all by itselfand that is what the second law is all about. [Isaac Asimov, Smithsonian Institute Journal, June 1970, p. 6] @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 76 Open vs. Closed Systems Evolutionists argue

2nd Law only applies to a closed system Living systems are exceptions because they represent open systems Solar energy is added to the earth But 2nd Law applies to the whole universe Entropy is increasing Things become less organized, less complex, more random in the universe Raw solar energy increases entropy, e.g. heat @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

77 Quote by Dr. John Ross ...there are no known violations of the second law of thermodynamics. Ordinarily the second law is stated for isolated systems, but the second law applies equally well to open systems ... there is somehow associated with the field of far-from equilibrium phenomena the notion that the second law of thermodynamics fails for such systems. It is important to make sure that this error does not perpetuate itself. [Dr. John Ross, Harvard scientist (evolutionist), Chemical and Engineering News, vol. 58, July 7, 1980, p. 40] @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 78 Add Open + Energy Apparent increase in organized complexity in

living matter requires more than just an open system and an available energy supply: A program (information) to direct growth in organized complexity A mechanism for storing and converting the incoming energy Examples: Plant photosynthesis, suns energy -> proteins Seed -> plant Animal metabolism, energy -> compose diet @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 79

Living Systems & 2nd Law Living systems have a program Living organisms DNA contains the code (DNA, information) to direct process of building organism Process continues throughout life of organism faster than natural processes (via 2nd Law) can break it down Living systems have storage/conversion Built-in mechanism to convert and store incoming energy Photosynthesis converts suns energy into

usable/storable forms, e. g. proteins Animals use metabolism to convert and use stored, usable, energy from organisms in their diets @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 80 3. NO Transitional Fossils No credible ape-like to human fossil identified Lack of empirical evidence for transitions The archaeopteryx was a bird, not a transitional

fossil between reptile and bird Whale evolution debunked Horse evolution debunked Inverted fossil orders Living fossils, e.g. coelacanth fish Polystrate fossils The Cambrian Explosion @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 81 Hominid Fossils Neanderthal Man accepted as homo sapiens Java Man artificial construct Piltdown Man proven to be a hoax

Nebraska Man an extinct pig Ramapithecus an orangutan Lucy make-believe creature NO credible ape-like ->human fossil found! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 82 Lord Zuckerman Chimes In For example, no scientist could logically dispute the proposition that man, without having been involved in any act of divine creation, evolved from some ape-like creature in a very short space of time speaking in geological terms without leaving any fossil traces of the steps of the transformation. Zuckerman, Solly. 1971. Beyond the ivory tower: The frontiers of

public and private science. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company. p. 64. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 83 Ape-like To Man? In a Science Digest article written by Lyall Watson, he states that: The fossils that decorate our family tree are so scarce that there are still more scientists than specimens. The remarkable fact is that all the physical evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to spare, inside a single coffin. David Pilbeam and Steven Gould (two evolutionists) report that:

Unfortunately, the fossil record of pongids (apes) is nonexistent, making a glaring deficiency in the whole story. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 84 Quote From Raup [Evolutionist] The record of evolution is still surprisingly jerky and, ironically, we have even fewer examples of evolutionary transition than we had in Darwins time. By this I mean that some of the classic cases of darwinian change in the fossil record, such as the evolution of the horse in North America, have had to be discarded or modified as a result of more detailed informationwhat appeared to be a nice simple progression when relatively few data were available now appears to be much more complex... [Raup, David M. (evolutionist), Conflicts Between Darwin and Paleontology, Bulletin, Field Museum of Natural History, vol. 50 (January 1979), p.25.]

@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 85 Quote from Simpson [Evolutionist] "...Every paleontologist knows that most new species, genera, and families, and that nearly all categories above the level of family appear in the record suddenly and are not led up to by known, gradual, completely continuous transitional sequences. [George Gaylord Simpson (evolutionist), The Major Features of Evolution, New York, Columbia University Press, 1953 p. 360.] @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 86 Quote From West [Evolutionist] Contrary to what most scientists write, the fossil record does not support the Darwinian theory of evolution because it is this theory (there are several) which we use to interpret the fossil

record. By doing so, we are guilty of circular reasoning if we then say the fossil record supports this theory. [Ronald R. West (evolutionist), Paleontology and Uniformitariansim. Compass, Vol. 45 (May 1968), p. 216.] @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 87 Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No! In the preceding chapters, we have cited example after example of failure to find transitional forms where evolutionary theory predicts such forms should have been found. The examples cited in this book are in no way exceptions, but serve to illustrate what is characteristic of the fossil record. [Duane T. Gish (Creationist), Evolution: The Fossils Still Say NO!, page 333.] @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

88 Fully Formed It is considered likely that all the animal phyla became distinct before or during the Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed, without intermediates connecting one phylum to another. Futuyma, Douglas J. 1986. Evolutionary biology. 2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 325 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 89 4. Life Did Not Originate From Non-Life by Random Chance Spontaneous generation (chemical evolution) has never been observed or shown to be possible

Redi in 1688, Spallanzani in 1780 Pasteur in 1860, Virchow in 1858 Law of biogenesis has never been falsified Non-complex life form is impossible Mycoplasma, simplest self-reproducing organism, has 482 genes with 580,000 letters (base pairs) Requires parasitizing a more complex organism Parasitism resulted from loss of genetic information @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 90

The Origin of Life Research on the origin of life seems to be unique in that the conclusion has already been authoritatively accepted . What remains to be done is to find the scenarios which describe the detailed mechanisms and processes by which this happened. One must conclude that, contrary to the established and current wisdom, a scenario describing the genesis of life on earth by chance and natural causes which can be accepted on the basis of fact and not faith has not yet been written. Yockey, H. P., A calculation of the probability of spontaneous biogenesis by information theory, Journal of Theoretical Biology 67:377-398, 1977. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 91 Mutations & Information Not By Chance, Dr. Lee Spetner

But in all the reading Ive done in the life-sciences literature, Ive never found a mutation that added information All point mutations that have been studied on the molecular level turn out to reduce the genetic information and not to increase it. Random (chance) mutation and natural selection are opposites! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 92 A Self-Replicating Organism? Prebiotic soup is easy to obtain. We must next explain how a prebiotic soup of organic molecules, including amino acids and the organic constituents of nucleotides evolved into a selfreplicating organism. While some suggestive evidence has been obtained, I must admit that attempts to reconstruct this evolutionary process are extremely tentative. [Dr. Leslie Orgel (evolutionist biochemist at the Salk

Institute, California), Darwinism at the very beginning of life, New Scientist, 15 April 1982, p. 150] @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 93 Spontaneous Formation of Life? The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it. It is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelligence. Wickramasinghe, professor of applied mathematics and astronomy, UK @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 94 5. Evolution is Only a Theory; It Has Not Been Proved

Working general biological meaning of evolution to most evolutionists is: a continuous naturalistic, mechanistic process by which all living things have arisen from a single living source which itself arose by a similar process from a non-living, inanimate world. A theory implies: Self-consistency Agreement with observations Usefulness @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 95

Evolutionism is Not Self-consistent By requiring multiple definitions, depending on the need of the moment In the varied, and contradictory camps connected with thermodynamics, phylogeny, proposed mechanisms, and various sub-theories, etc. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 96 Evolutionism Does Not Agree With Observations

The fossil record Geology Genetics Molecular biology Thermodynamics Various dating methods radiometric and geological/geophysical Probability mathematics @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 97 Evolutionism Has Not Proved Useful

No new advancements in scientific knowledge or technology, i.e. science does not require belief in Evolution No advancements in medicine (hindered in some cases because of false claims [now discarded] re: vestigal organs) No positive contribution to society through evolution-based social sciences, e.g. justification for racism, nazism, communism, other societal/ideological ills @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 98 Evolutionism Found Wanting

Evolution has never been observed Evolution violates 2nd Law of Thermodynamics There are NO credible transitional fossils Life can/did not originate from non-life by chance Evolution is only a (unproven) theory @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 99 Evolution Cannot Be Proved! It operates too slowly to be measurable (if it is taking place) The scientific method cannot be used to measure it Small variations in organisms, observed today, are not relevant (cant be used to distinguish between creation and evolution)

Dr. Heribert-Nilsson, Director of the Botanical Institute at Lund University, Sweden, said My attempt to demonstrate evolution by an experiment carried on for more than 40 years has completely failed. The idea of an evolution rests on pure belief. (Synthetische Artbildung, 1953). British Evolutionist Colin Patterson noted: No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of natural selection. No one has ever gotten near it and most of the current argument in neo-Darwinism is about this question. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 100 5. Does It Matter What We Believe About Creation? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 101 Setting The Stage

Atheists/Evolutionists say evolution is a fact, not a theory. Atheists say man is the result of a purposeless and natural process (without him in mind). Atheists say science is the basic source of knowledge. The evils of evolution result from the rejection of God as Creator. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 102 Quote from Dawkins (British evolutionist)

Richard Dawkins: It is absolutely safe to say that if you meet someone who claims not to believe in evolution, that person is ignorant, stupid or insane (or wicked, but Id rather not consider that). @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 103 The Influence of Evolution A persons philosophy of origins will inevitably determine what he believes concerning his destiny, and even what he believes about the meaning and purpose of his life and actions right now Henry Morris Evolution has an impact on every aspect of mans

thinking: his philosophy, his metaphysics, his ethics Ernst Mayr Evolutionary theory has been enshrined as the centerpiece of our educational system, and elaborate walls have been erected around it to protect it from unnecessary abuse. Jeremy Rifkin @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 104 How Has Evolution Impacted Us? Key influencers: The impact on our society is pervasive

Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Sigmund Freud Karl Marx, Adolf Hitler, Vladimer Lenin Friedrich Neitzsche, Ernst Haeckel John Dewey, Jean Paul Sartre Science, education, politics, religion, culture Secular humanism is a direct result of the philosophy of evolution The philosophy of evolution has led to many modern evils in our society @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 105 Evolution Is At The Foundation "Evolution is at the foundation of communism, fascism, Freudianism, social darwinism,

behaviorism, Kinseyism, materialism, atheism, and in the religious world, modernism and neoorthodoxy" -Henry Morris 1963, Genesis @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Flood p. 24 106 The Influence of Evolution Ones view of evolution DOES matter, as evidenced by the last 150 years Evolution is more than a biological or geological hypothesis Evolution is a world view!

A persons philosophy of origins will inevitably determine: His beliefs concerning his destiny His beliefs concerning the meaning and purpose of his life His actions in the present world @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 107 The Influence of Evolution - 2 Evolution is imposed on every area of our lives

Church, theistic evolution, culture Morally, socially, mentally Evolution provides an apparent way for a man to escape his responsibility to God No judge before whom we must all appear Man is responsible only to himself @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Whatever helps evolution helps 108 Implications of Evolutionary Thought

Cheapening of human life Unwarranted elevation of animal life Abortion, Euthanasia Animals should have human rights Overly zealous ecology movement Relativistic thinking Movement away from law based on Biblical concepts to popular will Change is the norm

@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 109 Abortion and Evolution Embryo in womb goes through stages of evolution called embryonic recapitulation by Ernst Haeckel, Women undergoing abortion are told that the embryo is only in the early stages of evolution (fish or animal) Late term abortions

-> @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 110 Conclusions Jesus is our Creator AND Redeemer Creation is an essential truth of the Bible You can trust the Bible as Gods Word Evolution is NOT a proven fact Science does support Creation It does matter what you believe Learn to defend your faith 1 Pet. 3:15 Dont be deceived Col. 2:8

Col. 2:8 See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 111 Which Foundation Will You Trust and Build On? @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 112 More Information ICR Institute for Creation Research

Answers in Genesis www.creationresearch.org Publication of peer-reviewed creation articles Dr. Heinz Lycklamas Lectures www.answersingenesis.org Books, seminars, articles on Creation Creation Research Society

www.icr.org Acts and Facts articles on Creation www.osta.com/creation & www.osta.com/apologetics True Origin Archive www.trueorigin.org Exposing the myth of evolution @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 113 Thank you for your attention! Dr. Heinz Lycklama [email protected]

www.osta.com/creation www.osta.com/apologetics @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 114 Creation Organizations ICR Institute for Creation Research www.icr.org Books by Henry Morris (founder), e.g.

The Genesis Flood The Genesis Record The Modern Creation Trilogy Acts and Facts articles on Creation Answers in Genesis www.answersingenesis.org Founded by Ken Ham Books, seminars, articles on Creation @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 115 Creation Organizations - 2 Creation Evidence Museum

Creation Moments www.creationevidence.org Dinosaurs and human tracks www.creationmoments.com Radio spots Creation Research Society www.creationresearch.org Publication of peer-reviewed creation articles

@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 116 Creation Organizations - 3 Center For Scientific Creation Creation Science Evangelism www.creationscience.com In The Beginning Book by Walt Brown, Ph.D. www.drdino.com Videos, seminars

Discovery Institute www.discovery.org Intelligent Design Think Tank @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 117 Important Books The Genesis Record, Dr. Henry Morris

The Genesis Flood, Dr. John Whitcomb & Dr. Henry Morris The Collapse of Evolution, Scott Huse The Lie: Evolution, Ken Ham Refuting Evolution, Dr. Jonathan Sarfati Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!, Dr. Duane Gish Scientific Creationism, Dr. Henry Morris Dinosaurs by Design, Dr. Duane Gish Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, Dr. J.C. Sanford @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 118 More Important Books

The Young Earth, Dr. John Morris Science and the Bible, Dr. Henry Morris Tornado in a Junkyard, James Perloff In The Beginning, Dr. Walt Brown Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, Michael Denton Darwin on Trial, Dr. Phillip Johnson Darwins Black Box, Dr. Michael Behe Design Inference, Dr. William Dembski Icons of Evolution, Dr. Jonathan Wells @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 119 Yet More Important Books

The Battle for the Beginning, Dr. John MacArthur Total Truth, Nancy Pearcey The Design Revolution, Dr. William Demski The Origin of Species Revisited, W. R. Bird It Matters What We Believe, Mike Riddle The Evolution of a Creationist, Jobe Martin Grand Canyon (a different view), Tom Vail In Six Days, Dr. John Ashton Starlight and Time, Dr. Russell Humphreys Starlight, Time and the New Physics, Dr. John Hartnett @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 120 Backup Slides @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama


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