Year 9 History Industrial Revolution Starter Sheets Readings

Year 9 History Industrial Revolution Starter Sheets Readings

Year 9 History Industrial Revolution Starter Sheets Readings Population About 7 million people lived in Britain in 1750, but it is hard to know the exact number because no one ever counted. Historians have had to estimate by analysing church records. Between 1750 and 1900 the population grew so fast that one historian called it an explosion of people. This was because of improvements in agriculture called the Agricultural revolution. The population of Britain rose from 7 million people in 1750 to 37 million in 1900. In just 150 years the population of Britain had more than quadrupled!! Government In 1750, Britain was made up of England, Scotland and Wales and was ruled by George II. Parliament made the laws and were pretty much left to do most of the work but the King still had to agree with their decisions before they became law. Parliament held elections every few years but in 1750 only 5% of men could vote (these were the richest men) and women could not vote at all. Ireland had been conquered and became part of the UK in 1801. Health People didnt know that germs caused disease. Basic operations, like removing an infected toenail, could result in death because there were no painkillers or germ-free, clean, operating rooms. The big killer diseases were smallpox and respiratory diseases, pneumonia, bronchitis, diphtheria and tuberculosis. The average age of death in Britain in 1750 was about 30 years of age. For every 1000 babies born, over 150 would die before reaching their first birthday and 1 in 5 mothers would die too! Transport People got around slowlyvery slowly. There were no aeroplanes, trains or cars. Most people rarely left their village except to go to the local town on market day. Carriages pulled by horses were the most common way of travelling but these could only be afforded by the rich, and roads were rare and bad. People who were less well off travelled on carts pulled by horses but the poor would have to walk everywhere they wanted to go. Work About 8 out of 10 people lived and worked in the countryside. They grew food and reared cattle and sheep. They grew enough food to feed themselves and perhaps some extra to sell in the local town. Goods were made in peoples homes or in small workshops attached to their homes. Some of the larger workshops in towns produced high quality goods that were sold abroad. But even these businesses employed no more than 50 people. Everything a village or town needed was made by hand or on very simple machines buttons, needles, woollen or cloth cloths, glass, bricks, pottery, candles and bread. Some towns were growing fast. Shopkeepers, chimney sweeps, flower sellers, doctors, housemaids, builders, cobblers and street traders all made a living in these fast growing towns. Empire By 1750 Britain was becoming a major world power. The British controlled areas of land in many other countries; parts of Canada, the West Indies, Africa, India and America were all under British control. Britain imported Indian silk, jewels, pottery, ivory, tea, American coffee, sugar, tobacco and Canadian cod. Companies sold these around Britain or they were exported to customers abroad. The goods made in Britain, like cloth, pottery and iron, were sold abroad in huge numbers. All this trade Year 9 Hist- Industrial Revolution Lesson 1 Reading Activity Britain before the Revolution 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : empire, explosion of people, exported, parliament, smallpox, vote, walk, workshop, 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________

b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________________ 10. What was the population of Britain in: 1750 ________________________ & 1900 ___________________________ 11. What countries made up Britain in 1801 ____________________________________________________________ 12. Was life hard for the poor at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution? Why? _____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ steam-powered locomotives revolutionised transport on land. Britain the Empire. Britain had settled in North America and had defeated France in the war against Napoleon gaining colonies and good positions for trade which supplied valuable raw materials like cotton and markets for their products. By 1850, Britain dominated world trade in manufactured goods, supplying two-thirds of the globe with cotton from the industrial centres of northern England. It also dominated in related services such as shipping, finance and insurance, with the result that London became the largest city in the world. By the turn of the century, Great Britain under Queen Victoria ruled about 20% percent of the world's land-mass. Good geographical position. Britain was in a good position for trade being on the western side of Europe. At home Britain had large deposits of coal and iron ore which industrialisation depended on. It also had rich farming lands to supply food for a growing population. The agricultural revolution in which farming techniques improved drastically providing a surplus of food but also a surplus of labour as small farmers were forced from their lands. A large population. The agricultural revolution and imports of meat from the colonies meant more food for the people. Advances in medical knowledge and sanitation meant that fewer people died in infancy, and the average lifespan also increased. Importantly, lower prices of food meant that people did not have to spend everything they earned on eating and could therefore purchase other products. The rise in Demand for cotton. Cotton clothes were cheaper, nicer to wear and easier to clean. Clothes were what people bought after food. Increased demand led development of machines such as the cotton gin. However it was the application of the steam engine to the textile industry that really drove the revolution and changed the face of society. The invention of steam was used in many industries including mining and transport. Coal was used to power the steam engines and Britain had plenty. It meant machines replaced people in producing goods. People moved from rural environments to urban environments. Improved transport. Business owners in order to maximize their returns, invested their money improving the transport of both coal and finished products. Canals, railways and roads all received significant investment. Steampowered vessels that did not rely on wind for their propulsion gradually replaced less reliable sailing ships, and Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 2 Reading Activity 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : agricultural revolution, coal, cotton, cotton gin, empire, farming techniques, industrialisation, locomotives, population, purchase, rural, steam, surplus, transport, urban 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________

c. ___________________________________________________________________ 10. What did colonies provide? ______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 11. Why were there more people in towns to work in the factories? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ 12. What do you think was the most important cause of the Industrial Revolution? Why? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Why the Industrial Revolution happened in Britain Punctuation exercise: put in commas, full stops and capitals. in contrast with the middle and upper classes the "working" class was not well off in the working class many were replaced in factories by machines but on the other hand many also gained new jobs in factories working with machinery the average adult worker worked quite often five to seven days of the week for more than half the day per shift children as young as fifteen worked for minimal wages some of the children became deformed or crippled due to their work which was often most workers worked for relatively low wages due to their incapability to produce goods the women and children were not paid as much as the men were the housing was not desirable either for example there was frequent overcrowding. the housing had unsanitary features which led to diseases workers who were desperate lived near a factory what also made life difficult during the industrial revolution was that there were limited privileges such as few people voted nor were they allowed to do anything to improve their working condition that was legal the amount of carbon dioxide increased two-fold as people moved closer to factories hoping to obtain employment resources started diminishing and the use of pesticides and hazardous chemicals began to increase Cross out the wrong word. Two classes that benefited from it was/were the "middle" and upper classes. These two classes was/were composed of people that had/have wealth and success. Even though most could afford goods anyway, the prices lowered even more, so that those who could not afford them before could now enjoy the comfort and convenience of the new products being/been made. The middle class was/were composed of businessmen and other professionals. The larger the Industrial Revolution grew/grow, the more powerful these individuals became/become. Individuals and groups formed/forms new libraries, schools, and universities because their/there/theyre was/were a sudden need for education (possibly due to the increase in population). The middle and upper classes had/have better food and housing, which led/lead to fewer diseases and longer living among these groups. Since these classes was/were treated so well, their/there/theyre population grew and thus had/have minimal difficulty living during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution made drastic changes on the lives of individuals. Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 3 Reading Activity Experiences

of the people 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : classes, education, factories, housing, middle, professionals, upper, working class 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. _________________________________________________________________: Life in Industrial Towns There was a huge growth in the size of British cities. In 1695, the population of Britain was estimated to be 5.5 million. By 1801, it was 9.3 million and by 1841, 15.9 million. As enclosure and technical developments in farming had reduced the need for people to work on farmland, many people moved to the cities to get accommodation and a job. These cities were not prepared for such an influx in such a short period of time and cities suffered problems not witnessed anywhere else in the world at this time. These cities needed cheap homes. There were few building regulations then and those that did exist were frequently ignored. Therefore, a house was put up quickly and cheaply and as many were built as was possible. The Industrial Revolution saw the start of what were known as back-to-back terrace housing. These had no garden and the only part of the building not connected to another house would be the front (and only) entrance (unless you were lucky enough to live in the end of the terrace). The poor people lived in the oldest part of the city, near the downtown district. The building material used was the cheapest a builder could find. The finished homes were damp. The poor families struggled to survive in crowded slums. The buildings they lived in were called tenements. They often had no windows, heat or inside bathrooms, and as many as 10 people slept in one small room. None of these homes was built with a bathroom, toilet or running water. You either washed in a tin bath in the home with the water being collected from a local pump or you simply did not wash. Many didnt wash as it was simply easier. Sanitation and hygiene barely existed and throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the great fear was a cholera, typhus or typhoid epidemic. More than half of all babies died before their first birthday. Cities had no sewers and garbage was thrown into the street. Toilets were cesspits. When these were filled they had to be emptied and what was collected was loaded onto a cart before being dumped in a local river. This work was also done by the night-men. Local laws stated that their work had to be done at night as the stench created by emptying the cesspits was too great to be tolerated during the day. The streets where the poor lived were poorly kept. A doctor in Manchester wrote about the city: "Whole streets, unpaved and without drains or main sewers, are worn into deep ruts and holes in which water constantly stagnates, and are so covered with refuse and excrement as to be impassable from depth of mud and intolerable stench. Fresh water supplies were also very difficult to get in the poor areas. With no running water supplies, the best people could hope for was to leave a bucket out and collect rainwater. Some 10. What percentage growth in population was there between 1695 and 1841? __________________ 11. What problems do you think would arise? List 5 _______________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________ 12. What do you think poor people could have done to improve their lives? _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ estimated, hygiene, sanitation, sewerage, slums, stench 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : accommodation, back to back housing, cities, Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 4 Reading Activity Life in Industrial towns Working in new industrial cities had an effect on peoples lives outside of the factories as well. As workers migrated from the country to the city, their lives and the lives of their families were utterly and permanently transformed. For many skilled workers, the quality of life decreased a great deal in the first 60 years of the Industrial Revolution. Skilled weavers, for example, lived well in pre-industrial society as a kind of middle class. They tended their own gardens, worked on textiles in their homes or small shops, and raised farm animals. They were their own bosses. One contemporary observer noted, their dwelling and small gardens clean and neat, all the family well clad, the men with each a watch in their pocket, and the women dressed in their own fancy, the Church crowded to excess every Sunday, every house well furnished with a clock in elegant mahogany or fancy case. . . . Their little cottages seemed happy and contented. . . . it was seldom that a weaver appealed to the parish for a relief. . . . peace and content sat upon the weavers brow. But, after the Industrial Revolution, the living conditions for skilled weavers significantly deteriorated. They could no longer live at their own pace or supplement their income with gardening, spinning, or communal harvesting. For skilled workers, quality of life took a sharp downturn: A quarter [neighbourhood] once remarkable for its neatness and order; I remembered their whitewashed houses, and their little flower gardens, and the decent appearance they made with their families at markets, or at public worship. These houses were now a mass of filth and misery. In the first sixty years or so of the Industrial Revolution, working-class people had little time or opportunity for recreation. Workers spent all the light of day at work and came home with little energy, space, or light to play sports or games. The new industrial pace and factory system were at odds with the old traditional festivals which dotted the village holiday calendar. Plus, local governments actively sought to ban traditional festivals in the cities. In the new working-class neighbourhoods, people did not share the same traditional sense of a village community. Owners fined workers who left their jobs to return to their villages for festivals because they interrupted the efficient flow of work at the factories. After the 1850s, however, recreation improved along with the rise of an emerging the middle class. Music halls

sprouted up in big cities. Sports such as rugby and cricket became popular. Football became a professional sport in 1885. By the end of the 19th century, cities had become the places with opportunities for sport and entertainment that they are today. During the first 60 years of the Industrial Revolution, living conditions were, by far, worst for the poorest of the poor. In desperation, many turned to the poorhouses set up by the government. The Poor Law of 1834 created workhouses for the destitute. Poorhouses were designed to be deliberately harsh places to discourage people from staying on relief (government food aid). Families, including husbands and wives, were separated upon entering the grounds. They were confined each day as inmates in a prison and worked every day. Yet, despite these very harsh conditions, workhouse inmates increased from 78,536 in 1838 to Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 5 Reading Activity Life in Industrial towns 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : communal, cottages, decreased, pre-industrial, middle class, transformed, workhouses 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. Highlight 5 verbs. 6. Highlight 5 adjectives 7. Highlight 3 adverbs 8. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Why did factory owners fine workers who went home for festivals? ________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 11. Why didnt the poor play sport? ___________________________________________ 12. What years were the first 60 years of the Industrial Revolution? __________________ Nine factory working abuses This is the kind of information you would get if you read an older textbook such as "History Alive" (1968) or "Machine, Money and Men" (1969): 1.Long working hours normal shifts were recorded as 12 to 14 hours a day, with extra time required during brisk times when trade was good. Workers were often required to clean their machines during their mealtimes. It was claimed that employers changed the clocks to get a few minutes extra out of their workers every day. 2.Low wages a typical wage for male workers was about 15 shillings (75p) a week, but women and children were paid much lower wages, with women earning 7 shillings (35p) and children 3 shillings (15p). For this reason, employers preferred to employ women and children. Many men were sacked when they reached adulthood and had to be supported by their wives and children. 3.Cruel discipline frequent strapping (it was claimed that children had been thrashed to death). Women and children were easily bullied. One witness claimed that he had seen an iron bar driven through the cheek of one girl. Other alleged punishments included hanging iron weights around childrens necks, hanging them from the roof in baskets, nailing a childs ear to the table, and dowsing them in water butts to keep them awake. 4.Fierce systems of fines fines were imposed for things like talking or whistling, leaving the room without permission, of having a little dirt on a machine. It was claimed that employers altered the time on the clocks to make their workers late so that they could fine them. Some employers required their overseers to raise a minimum amount each week from fines. 5.Deformities many children who were forced to stand for long hours grew up with conditions such as knock-knees and bow legs.

6.Accidents forcing children to crawl into dangerous, unguarded machinery - often when they were so tired they were falling asleep on their feet - led to many accidents. It was said that 40 per cent of accident cases at Manchester Infirmary in 1833 were factory accidents. 7.Health cotton thread had to be spun in damp conditions at 70F. Going straight out into the cold night air led to many cases of pneumonia. The air was full of dust, which led to chest and lung diseases and loud noise made by machines damaged workers' hearing. 8.Parish apprentices orphans from workhouses in the south of England were "apprenticed" to factory owners, supposedly to learn the textiles trade. They worked 12-hour shifts, and slept in barracks attached to the factory, in the beds just vacated by children about to start the next shift. 10.How many hours did people work a day? ___________________________________________ 11.What punishments were given? __________________________________________________ 12.Why are you glad you are not a factory worker in the Industrial Revolution? _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ minimum, shifts, shillings, strapping, wages, 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : apprentices, deformities, diseases, fines, machines, Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 6 Reading Activity Children of the Revolution Children of the Revolution The working classwho made up 80% of societyhad little or no bargaining power with their new employers. Since population was increasing in Great Britain at the same time that landowners were enclosing common village lands, people from the countryside flocked to the towns and the new factories to get work. This resulted in a very high unemployment rate for workers in the first phases of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, the new factory owners could set the terms of work because there were far more unskilled labourers, who had few skills and would take any job, than there were jobs for them. And since the textile industries were so new at the end of the 18th century, there were initially no laws to regulate them. Desperate for work, the migrants to the new industrial towns had no bargaining power to demand higher wages, fairer work hours, or better working conditions. Worse still, since only wealthy people in Great Britain were eligible to vote, workers could not use the democratic political system to fight for rights and reforms. In 1799 and 1800, the British Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which made it illegal for workers to unionize, or combine, as a group to ask for better working conditions.

Many of the unemployed or underemployed were skilled workers, such as hand weavers, whose talents and experience became useless because they could not compete with the efficiency of the new textile machines. For the first generation of workersfrom the 1790s to the 1840sworking conditions were very tough, and sometimes tragic. Most laborers worked 10 to 14 hours a day, six days a week, with no paid vacation or holidays. Each industry had safety hazards too. Under such dangerous conditions, accidents on the job occurred regularly. Injured workers would typically lose their jobs and also receive no financial compensation for their injury to pay for much needed health care. Life in the factory was most challenging for the first generation of industrial workers who still remembered the slower and more flexible pace of country life. Factory employers demanded a complete change of pace and discipline from the village life. Workers could not wander over to chat with their neighbors or family as they would have done while working in the country. They could not return to the village during harvest time to help their families, unless they wanted to lose their jobs. Instead, they were no longer their own bosses; foremen and overseers supervised a new working culture to insure that workers actions were focused and efficient. A few workers were able to improve their lot by going into business for themselves or winning a job as a supervisor, But the majority saw very little social mobility. Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 7 Reading Activity 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words: landowners, migrants, reforms, textiles, unemployment, unskilled, working conditions 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ 10. What percentage were working class? _______________________________________ 11. Why were the lives of textile workers especially hard? ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 12. What role, if any, do you think the government should have taken to improve working conditions in the new industrial factories, mills, and coal mines? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Urbanization One of the defining and most lasting features of the Industrial Revolution was the rise of cities. In pre-industrial society, over 80% of people lived in rural areas. As migrants moved from the countryside, small towns became large cities. By 1850, for the first time in world history, more people in a countryGreat Britainlived in cities than in rural areas. As other countries in Europe and North America industrialized, they too continued along this path of urbanization. By 1920, a majority of Americans lived in cities. In England, this process of urbanization continued unabated throughout the 19th century. The city of London grew from a population of two million in 1840 to five million forty years later. The small town of Manchester, England also grew rapidly and famously to become the quintessential industrial city. Its cool climate was ideal for textile production. And it was

located close to the Atlantic port of Liverpool and the coalfields of Lancashire. The first railroads in the world later connected the textile town to Liverpool. As a result, Manchester quickly became the textile capital of the world, drawing huge numbers of migrants to the city. In 1771, the sleepy town had a population of 22,000 . Over the next fifty years, Manchesters population exploded and reached 180,000. Many of the migrants were destitute farmers from Ireland who were being evicted from their land by their English landlords. In Liverpool and Manchester roughly 25 to 33 percent of the workers were Irish.. This process of urbanization stimulated the booming new industries by concentrating workers and factories together. And the new industrial cities became, as we read earlier, sources of wealth for the nation. Despite the growth in wealth and industry urbanization also had some negative effects. On the whole, working-class neighbourhoods were bleak, crowded, dirty, and polluted. Alexis de Tocqueville, a French traveller and writer, visited Manchester in 1835 and commented on the environmental hazards. From this foul Drain the greatest stream of human industry flows out to fertilize the whole world. From this filthy sewer pure gold flows. Here humanity attains its most complete development and its most brutish, here civilization works its miracles and civilized man is turned almost into a savage. Nowadays most of the populations of industrialised nations live in cities but with the arrival of the technological revolution will this change? ____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 13.What does the writer mean by From this filthy sewer pure gold flows. ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ 10.Underline the following words: environmental, industrialised, polluted, rural, textile industry, urbanisation 11.How many people lived in rural areas before the Industrial Revolution? ____________________ 12.Why did Manchester become the quintessential industrial city? 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ industry, urbanisation 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : environmental, industrialised, polluted, rural, textile Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 8 Reading Activity Effects of the Revolution Working Class Families and The Role of Women

The Industrial Revolution completely transformed the role of the family. In traditional, agricultural society, families worked together as a unit of production, tending to fields, knitting sweaters, or tending to the fire. Women could parent and also play a role in producing food or goods needed for the household. Work and play time were flexible and interwoven. Industrialisation changed all that. The same specialisation of labour that occurred in factories occurred in the lives of working-class families, and this broke up the family economy. Work and home life became sharply separated. Men earned money for their families. Women took care of the home and saw their economic role decline. While many factory workers were initially women, most of them were young women who would quit working when they married. In stark contrast to the various changing tasks that a farmer performed in pre-industrial society, factory workers typically completed repetitive and monotonous tasks for 10 to 14 hours each day. Industrial working-class families, though not working together, did serve an economic purpose of raising money to support each other. As we have seen, children often worked to earn some income for the family. In difficult circumstances, mothers struggled to make ends meet and keep the family out of the poorhouses. Jane Goode, a working-class mother, testified before the British Factory Commission in 1833. The history of her family shows the worries and stresses of a mother struggling to survive. Her life shows the unfortunately common death rate of infants. Jane Goode had twelve children, but five died before the age of two: I have had five children that have all worked at the factory. I have only one that works there now. She is sixteen. She works in the card-room. She minds the drawing-head. She gets 5 shillings 9 pence. She pays it all to me. She has worked there nine years. She has been at the drawing-head all the while. She got 2 shilling when she first went. She was just turned seven. . . . Mary did not work here [at the factory] long. She went in about fourteen or fifteen. She was married last summer. She is thirty next June. She went on working at Elliot and Mills and other factories till she married. Anne was just turned seven; she worked here four years, then she went to Mr Elliots, and worked there till she was married, two years ago. She is nineteen next June. John was not eight when he went in; he is now twenty-two. . . . I have had twelve children altogether. I thought you were asking only of those who worked at the mill. There were five that died before they were a quarter of a year old. . . . Mr Samuel Wilson (now dead) came to Derby to get my hand, and I engaged with him with my family. I did it to keep Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson 9 Reading Activity Effects of the Revolution 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : agricultural, economic, household, monotonous, repetitive, specialisation , transformed, 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ 10.What became sharply separated after the Industrial Revolution? ___________________________________________________________________ 11.How did the nature of work change from a farm to a factory? ___________________________________________________________________ 12.In what ways are work in a factory similar today as in the Industrial revolution times? ___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________ Gradually, very gradually, a middle class, or middling sort, did emerge in industrial cities, mostly toward the end of the 19th century. Until then, there had been only two major classes in society: aristocrats born into their lives of wealth and privilege, and low-income commoners born in the working classes. However new urban industries gradually required more of what we call today white collar jobs, such as business people, shopkeepers, bank clerks, insurance agents, merchants, accountants, managers, doctors, lawyers, and teachers. [Middle-class people tended to have monthly or yearly salaries rather than hourly wages.] One piece of evidence of this emerging middle class was the rise of retail shops in England that increased from 300 in 1875 to 2,600 by 1890. Another mark of distinction of the middle class was their ability to hire servants to cook and clean the house from time to time. Not surprisingly, from 1851 to 1871, the number of domestic servants increased from 900,000 to 1.4 million. This is proof of a small but rising middle class that prided themselves on taking responsibility for themselves and their families. They viewed professional success as the result of a persons energy, perseverance, and hard work. In this new middle class, families became a sanctuary from stressful industrial life. Home remained separate from work and took on the role of emotional support, where women of the house created a moral and spiritual safe harbor away from the rough-and-tumble industrial world outside. Most middle-class adult women were discouraged from working outside the home. They could afford to send their children to school. As children became more of an economic burden, and better health care decreased infant mortality, middle-class women gave birth to fewer children The Emerging Middle Class Year 9 Hist - Industrial Revolution Lesson Reading Activity Effects of the Revolution 1. Write down the heading. ________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : aristocrats, domestic servants, middle class, merchants, retail, society, white collar, 4. Write down the words you dont know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. 6. Highlight 5 verbs. 7. Highlight 5 adjectives 8. Highlight 3 adverbs 9. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ 10.What is a middle class person? ___________________________________________________________________ 11.What jobs did they do?_________________________________________________ 12.How could you tell if someone was middle class? ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

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    texasrhp9.com . You will be able to find an extended copy of this presentation and the RHP 9 Final Plan Update Template by going to the RHP 9 website, texasrhp9.com. Clicking on the link found under the Waiver Information area...