Your Future in Pharmacy Practice

Your Future in Pharmacy Practice

Chapter 14 Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College YOUR FUTURE IN PHARMACY PRACTICE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify a variety of strategies for successful adaptation to the work environment. Define and differentiate the terms licensure, certification, and registration. Describe and contrast the format and content of the PTCB and ICPT certification examinations. Explain the criteria for recertification for pharmacy technicians by PTCB and ICPT.

Discuss the importance of technician involvement in professional organizations and networking with colleagues in the profession. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College LEARNING OBJECTIVES Make a plan for a successful job search. Write a resume and a cover letter. Prepare for and successfully complete an interview. Define ethics and discuss characteristics of ethical behavior. Identify ethical dilemmas that may occur in pharmacy practice.

Discuss some trends for the future of the pharmacy profession and their impact on pharmacy technicians. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASING YOUR EMPLOYABILITY The outlook for pharmacy technicians is bright. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/pharmacytechnicians.htm http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes292052.ht m Paraprofessional: one who is qualified and trained to assist a professional. Professional: someone with recognized expertise in a field who is expected to use his

or her knowledge and skills to benefit others and to operate ethically with some autonomy. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College ADJUSTING TO THE WORK ENVIRONMENT Working in a pharmacy requires adjustment; adjustment to a new work culture, different behaviors, unfamiliar customs, and even a new language. Attitude Reliability Accuracy and responsibility Relating to your supervisor

Personality Performance Questioning Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College ADJUSTING TO THE WORK ENVIRONMENT Dress Receptivity Etiquette Alliances Reputation Luck Crisis Learning

Expertise Reflectiveness about your career Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PROFESSIONALISM AND THE TECHNICIAN Pharmacists are required to obtain credentials like: graduating from an accredited pharmacy school, sitting for a licensure exam, and sometimes completing a residency. Pharmacy technicians are being asked to seek credentials. Credential: documented piece of evidence of ones qualifications.

Pharmacy technician credentials may include licensure and/or certification. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PROFESSIONALISM AND THE TECHNICIAN Be qualified to perform the duties required Use specific knowledge and skills to perform duties required Adhere to a code of ethical conduct

Expectations elevate the job responsibilities beyond that of an hourly paid employee. Trust obligates technicians to serve the public good and benefit the lives of patients. Training programs for pharmacy technicians can vary. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College Technicians are part of the pharmacy profession, and as part of the profession are expected to: PROFESSIONALISM AND THE TECHNICIAN Licensure: the granting of a license by the

state; usually renewable; often dependent on keeping current knowledge and skills. Certification: a nongovernmental association grants recognition to an individual who has met certain predetermined qualifications; seldom mandatory in order to practice legally. Increasing need for technicians to be certified. Certification can be required for employment or is encouraged within the first year of employment. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral

Area College http://www.ptcb.org/who-we-serve/ pharmacy-technicians/bystate#.VRQXy9KjOSo PROFESSIONALISM AND THE TECHNICIAN Registration: means that an individual is required to sign up or register with a state agency, such as the State Board of Pharmacy. Certification can be required to register. Registration allows the state board to track any individuals with felony, theft, or drug diversion histories. Certification is often valid and transferable to all states. Certification is preferred or even required for

employment in many areas. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PROFESSIONALISM AND THE TECHNICIAN Many states stipulate the number of technicians that can work in a pharmacy with a pharmacist at any given time. There are no limitations on the maximum pharmacy technician to pharmacist ratio in Missouri. Some states are requiring the completion of formal programs for technicians. Certified Pharmacy Technician (CPhT) is given to a technician who can pass one of the two

pharmacy technician examinations. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PTCB EXAMINATION 1995: American Pharmacists Association (APhA), American Society of Health System Pharmacist (ASHP), the Illinois Council of Health-System Pharmacists (ICHP), and the Michigan Pharmacists Association (MPA) created the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB). PTCB mission is to establish and maintain criteria for certification and recertification of pharmacy technicians on a national basis. Professional Examination Service (PES)

administers the Pharmacy Technician Certification Exam (PTCE). Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PTCB EXAMINATION Upon passing the PTCE, candidates receive the title of CPhT. Over 275,000 technicians have become certified since the conception of the PTCB. https://www.ptcb.org/AM/Template.cfm?Secti on=FAQs2&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm& ContentID=4406#Certification Table 14.1 PTCE Content

About_the_Exam&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cf m&ContentID=4753 Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College https://www.ptcb.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section= PTCB EXAMINATION Candidates have 1 hour and 50 minutes to complete a total of 90 multiple-choice questions, 80 of which are scored. Final score is based on the total number of correct answers rather than the percentage of correct answers; 650 or higher is the score required to pass. 77 82% of examination testers pass the test each year; the pass rate is approximately 75%.

Recertification: required every 2 yrs; 20 pharmacy related CEs (Continuing Education) credits, with at least 1 credit in pharmacy law. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PTCB EXAMINATION Candidates are allowed four attempts at the exam. Candidates who unsuccessfully pass the exam must wait 60 days from the most recent attempt to apply for the second and third attempts. The fourth attempt has a waiting period of 6 months. Additional attempts beyond the four requires

the candidate to petition PTCB in writing for additional attempts. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College ICPT EXAMINATION Institute for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ICPT): an organization by pharmacists for the pharmacy profession. ICPT mission: to recognize pharmacy technicians who are proficient in the knowledge and skills needed to assist pharmacists to prepare and dispense prescriptions safely, accurately, and efficiently, and to promote high standards of practice for pharmacy technicians.

2005: ICPT offers an online examination; Exam for Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ExCPT). Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College ICPT EXAMINATION http://www.nhanow.com/faq/student-faq.aspx http://www.nhanow.com/certifications/certific ation-process.aspx 110 multiple-choice questions; 2 hours to complete the exam. 25% regulations & technician duties; 23% on drugs and drug products (Top 200 Rx and Top 100 OTC); 52% on the dispensing process. http://www.nhanow.com/pharmacy-technician

/recertification.aspx Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College HIERARCHY OF TECHNICIAN POSITIONS Differing levels of technician responsibilities. Tech I and II Entry-level technician Senior technician Job responsibilities. Sterile and non-sterile compounding may be reserved for higher-level technicians. Additional specialty certifications may be required.

Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Being a part of a profession means taking an active role in advancing that profession. Technicians have a vested role in making sure their views are heard by local, state and national forums. Get involved! Most organizations have technician representation: ASHP, NABP, PTCB Be aware of current issues effecting pharmacy technicians. Locate technician organizations and find out how to particpate.

Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College JOB SEARCH Dont get overwhelmed in the hunt for a job. Break the process of searching for a job into steps. What characteristics do pharmacy and human resource managers look for in a pharmacy technician? Are you willing to work weekends or nights if the position requires? Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College

CLARIFY YOUR CAREER GOALS What are you looking for in a job? Are Where do you want to work? Take time to interview pharmacists and technicians who work in a variety of pharmacy settings to help with deciding where you want to work. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College

you interested in jobs with opportunities for advancement in retail management? Are you more interested in customer care? Do you want to compound, either sterile or nonsterile? WRITE A GOOD RESUME Table 14.2 The Parts of a Resume What is a resume? What can a resume convey, or not convey? Check your resume carefully for errors in spelling, grammar, usage, punctuation, capitalization, and form. Always have someone read through and check your resume for errors. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral

Area College ESTABLISH A NETWORK Tell everyone you know you are looking for a job; they might be able to assist you in finding a position. Join state and national associations, attend meetings, and network with colleagues and employers. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College IDENTIFY AND RESEARCH POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS Career Placement Office Look up potential employers.

Utilize web sites for career opportunities. http://www.indeed.com/jobs?q=pharmacy+te chnician&l=missouri&start=20 Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College WRITE A STRONG COVER LETTER Table 14.3 Suggested Format for Cover Letters A cover letter is the first communication you will have with a potential employer, your resume should accompany the cover letter. The cover letter should highlight your qualifications and call attention to your resume. A letter address To whom it may concern

will not get the same reception as a letter addressed to the actual pharmacist manager doing the hiring. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College PREPARE FOR THE INTERVIEW Table 14.4 Guidelines for Job Interviews Review the material you have prior to your interview. Get plenty of sleep, and eat well the day before and the day of your interview. Table 14.5 Interview Questions Be ready to describe a situation where youve dealt with a difficult co-worker or member of the public.

Ask questions towards the end of the interview. Follow-up after the interview, thanking the interviewer for meeting with you. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College ETHICS IN PHARMACY PRACTICE Ethics: the study of standards of conduct and moral judgment that outline the right or wrong of human conduct and character. Ethics is a code of conduct for a particular person, group, or profession. Studying ethics gives one a framework to base high professional standards that guide decision making. The study of ethics can provide a moral compass, helping one understand and respect the viewpoints

of others. Laws and regulations cant always dictate proper behavior in every situation encountered in pharmacy. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College CODES OF BEHAVIOR Ethical codes are based on a relationship of trust between a profession and a client. Professional service is not standardized. The patient is vulnerable to the services provided. Pharmacy technicians, as paraprofessionals, are held to a set of high standards. Pharmacy technicians must be empathetic. Doing what is right for the patient is important.

Statements regarding codes of ethics are written and often supported by professional organizations, providing language to aid in decision-making processes. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College DILEMMAS AND QUESTIONS FACING HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS Ethical dilemma: a situation that calls for a judgment between two or more solutions, not all of which are necessarily wrong. Questions to ask when facing an ethical dilemma:

is the dilemma? What pharmaceutical alternatives apply? What is the best alternative, and can it be justified on moral grounds? Pharmacy technicians must understand decision-making processes and become personally involved in finding facts that apply to a dilemma. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College What DILEMMAS AND QUESTIONS FACING HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS

Examples that pharmacists and technicians may face on a daily basis, pg. 427-428. As pharmacy continues to evolve new questions will arise that challenge pharmacy personnel. Answers to ethical dilemmas require and deserve personal and professional debate. Opinions will arise, when this happens, the pharmacy technician must learn to respect without prejudice. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College TRENDS IN PHARMACY PRACTICE Pharmacy is constantly changing. Think of how different pharmacies are today

vs. the turn of the century pharmacies. The profession will most likely change more in the next 30 years than it has in the past 100 years. Exciting developments are in store for the profession. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College WORKFORCE ISSUES In 2008 the number of prescriptions filled was 4 billion. This number is estimated to double over the next 5-15 years. By 2020, up to 400,000 pharmacist will be needed (however there is only an expected

30% increase). Well-trained, qualified technicians will bridge the gap between the work volume and the personnel available. Technicians must be able to manage workflow and prescription processing systems. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASED EMPHASIS ON MAILORDER PHARMACIES Mail-order pharmacies have continued to grow since the 1990s. Mail-order pharmacies account for $20.3 billion in sales in 2001; $33.9 billion in 2004 (67% increase in 3 years).

Mail-order pharmacies represent 14% of all U.S. prescription sales. Mail-order pharmacies have the possible capacity to dispense 6000 prescriptions in 24 hours. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASED EMPHASIS ON MANAGED CARE Managed care applies fiscal conservation to the healthcare system. Pharmacy is called upon to provide the most appropriate drug therapy at the lowest cost possible. Technicians can find new opportunities

working with programs and efforts to encourage smart but inexpensive drug use. Technicians who specialize in managed care settings will need communication, writing, and computer application skills. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASED GERIATRIC APPLICATIONS As the population of the United States ages the need for dispensing medications will increase. Great financial burdens will be placed on the healthcare system as a whole because of the aging population. Political decisions will affect pharmacy work

place and workload. Pharmacists and technicians will provide services to the population of older adults not only in a community setting, but in nursing home and home health settings. Medicare Part D Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASED EMPHASIS ON HOME HEALTHCARE Home healthcare is the most rapidly growing industry the developed world. The growth is attributed to reduced cost, improvements in technology making home health more practical, and the preference to

receive treatment at home rather than in an institution. TPN therapy, HIV/AIDS therapy, cancer chemotherapy, home antibiotic infusions, and biogenetic treatments for autoimmune diseases are some examples of home health treatments. Home care shows no signs of slowing in growth, providing yet another area of employability. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College GROWTH IN CLINICAL APPLICATIONS The pharmacy professionals time and energies will increasingly be spent on education and counseling. Pharmacists are administering vaccinations.

Pharmacist both in the community and hospital pharmacy settings may already specialize, or find the need to specialize, in areas to aid patients in the management of certain diseases. Pharmacy technicians need to provide increasing support to the pharmacists in regards to clinical applications. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASED TECHNICIAN RESPONSIBILITY AND SPECIALIZATION Some states allow technicians to check other technicians work. Other states allow technicians to accept new

prescriptions from physicians offices. Technicians will continue to be given more and more responsibilities. Technicians will become specialized in particular areas. Technicians could find themselves working one-on-one with patients. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College NEW MEDICINES AND NEW DRUG DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGIES Every day new medications come to the market, many involve new drug development technologies. To work in pharmacy is to be at the front line

when new medications are introduced. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the pharmacy profession. The future can hold anything, but most certainly new dosage forms, delivery mechanisms, and technologies will evolve and emerge. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College NEW DOSAGE FORMS AND DRUG DELIVERY MECHANISMS New dosage forms and drug delivery mechanisms are not introduce as often as new drugs. Innovation though is rapidly increasing its

pace. Recent innovations include additional transdermal medications, ocular inserts, long-acting medications, liposomes and monoclonal antibodies. In the future look for wearable IV infusion pumps combined with sensors, creating an almost artificial pancrease. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College ROBOTICS Robotic machinery, common in mail-order pharmacies, is being used in institutional and community pharmacy settings. Robotics will continue to play a large role in

pharmacy for example with automated compounding, filing, labeling, and record keeping. e-prescribing and eMar will continue to have an increased emphasis in all pharmacy settings. Bar coding and scanning has seen an increase in both hospital and community pharmacy settings maximizing efficiency and Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASED HEALTHCARE AND DRUG COSTS The United States spends more on healthcare than any other country in the world.

The United States though is not among the leaders in average life span. The cost of insurance will outpace inflation over the next decade. Medicare costs are expected to double from $427 billion to $884 billion by 2017. Medicaid will more than double from $338 billion to $717 billion by 2017. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College INCREASED HEALTHCARE AND DRUG COSTS Employers are asking employees to share the financial burden of healthcare costs. These individuals are becoming more and

more aware to the costs of health care and prescription drugs. The result is insurance plans with higher deductibles, with rising healthcare costs and insurance premiums. Pharmacy staff will need to work with patients with and without insurance to identify the most cost-effective and affordable drug therapy options. Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College This work by Mineral Area College is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licens e.

Created by Jennifer Majeske, Mineral Area College This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Labors Employment and Training Administration. The solution was created by the grantee and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. The Department of Labor makes not guarantees, warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or tis completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued availability, or ownership.

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